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NS1.27.6.21 – 31222 WORDS

2 January 2015



F you wish to free yourself from the

sufferings of birth and death you

have endured since time without be-

ginning and to attain without fail un-

surpassed enlightenment in this lifetime,

you must perceive the mystic truth that

is originally inherent in all living beings.

This truth is Myoho-renge-kyo. Chant-

ing Myoho-renge-kyo will therefore

enable you to grasp the mystic truth

innate in all life.

The Lotus Sutra is the king of sutras,

true and correct in both word and

principle. Its words are the ultimate

reality, and this reality is the Mystic

Law (myoho). It (…) it reveals THE PRINCIPLE OF

the mutually inclusive relationship of

a single moment of life and all phe-


Life at each moment encompasses

the body and mind and the self and

environment of all sentient beings (…) as well as all insentient

beings in the three thousand realms,

including plants, sky, earth, and even

the minutest particles of dust. Life at

each moment permeates the entire

realm of phenomena and is revealed in

all phenomena. To be awakened to this

principle is itself the mutually inclusive

relationship of life at each moment

andall phenomena. Nevertheless, even

though you chant and believe in

Myoho-renge-kyo, if you think the

Law is outside yourself, you are em-

bracing not the Mystic Law but an

inferior teaching. “Inferior teaching”

means those other than this [Lotus]

sutra, which are all expedient and pro-

visional. No expedient or provisional

teaching leads directly to enlighten-

ment, and without the direct path to

enlightenment you cannot attain Bud-

dhahood, even if you practice lifetime

after lifetime for countless kalpas. At-

taining Buddhahood in this lifetime is

then impossible. Therefore, when you

chant myohoand recite renge,1 you must

summon up deep faith that Myoho-

renge-kyo is your life itself.

You must never think that any of

theeighty thousand sacred teachings of

Shakyamuni Buddha’s lifetime or any

of the Buddhas and bodhisattvas of the

ten directions and three existences are

outside yourself. Your practice of the

Buddhist teachings will not relieve you

of the sufferings of birth and death in

the least unless you perceive the true

nature of your life. If you seek enlight-

enment outside yourself, then your

performing even ten thousand practices

and ten thousand good deeds will be in

vain. It is like the case of a poor man

who spends night and day counting his

neighbor’s wealth but gains not even

half a coin. That is why the T’ien-t’ai

school’s commentary states, “Unless



one perceives the nature of one’s life,

one cannot eradicate one’s grave of-

fenses.”2This passage implies that, unless

one perceives the nature of one’s life,

one’s practice will become an endless,

painful austerity. Therefore, such stu-

dents of Buddhism are condemned as

non-Buddhist. Great Concentration and

Insight states that, although they study

Buddhism, their views are no different

from those of non-Buddhists.

Whether you chant the Buddha’s

name,3 recite the sutra, or merely offer

flowers and incense, all your virtuous

acts will implant benefits and roots of

goodness in your life. With this con-

viction you should strive in faith. The

Vimalakirti Sutra states that, when one

seeks the Buddhas’ emancipation in the

minds of ordinary beings, one finds

that ordinary beings are the entities of

enlightenment, and that the sufferings

of birth and death are nirvana. It also

states that, if the minds of living beings

are impure, their land is also impure,

but if their minds are pure, so is their

land. There are not two lands, pure or

impure in themselves. The difference

lies solely in the good or evil of our


It is the same with a Buddha and an

ordinary being. When deluded, one is

called an ordinary being, but when

enlightened, one is called a Buddha.

This is similar to a tarnished mirror

that will shine like a jewel when pol-

ished. A mind now clouded by the

illusions of the innate darkness of life is

like a tarnished mirror, but when pol-

ished, it is sure to become like a clear

mirror, reflecting the essential nature of

phenomena and the true aspect of re-

ality. Arouse deep faith, and diligently

polish your mirror day and night. How

should you polish it? Only by chanting


What then does myo signify? It is

simply the mysterious nature of our life

from moment to moment, which the

mind cannot comprehend or words

express. When we look into our own

mind at any moment, we perceive nei-

ther color nor form to verify that it

exists. Yet we still cannot say it does

not exist, for many differing thoughts

continually occur. The mind cannot

be considered either to exist or not

toexist. Life is indeed an elusive re-

ality that transcends both the words

and concepts of existence and nonexis-

tence. It is neither existence nor non-

existence, yet exhibits the qualities of

both. It is the mystic entity of the

Middle Way that is the ultimate reality.

Myo is the name given to the mystic

nature of life, and ho, to its manifesta-

tions. Renge, which means lotus flower,

is used to symbolize the wonder of this

Law. If we understand that our life

at this moment is myo, then we will

also understand that our life at other

moments is the Mystic Law.4 This

realization is the mystic kyo, or sutra.

The Lotus Sutra is the king of sutras,

the direct path to enlightenment, for

it explains that the entity of our life,

which manifests either good or evil at

each moment, is in fact the entity of

the Mystic Law.

If you chant Myoho-renge-kyo with

deep faith in this principle, you are

certain to attain Buddhahood in this

lifetime. That is why the sutra states,

“After I have passed into extinction,

[one] should accept and uphold this

sutra. Such a person assuredly and

without doubt will attain the Buddha

way.”5 Never doubt in the slightest.


Maintain your faith and attain Bud-

dhahood in this lifetime. Nam-myoho-

renge-kyo, Nam-myoho-renge-kyo.


13-Moon Natural Time Calendar
Organize – Balance – Equality

RHYTHMIC 21 Fri Jan 2, 2015 RED COSMIC MOON Guided by Space KIN 169 Waxing Gibbous 91.0%


Day Seven: SILIO
Level 1: Meditating the Anahata (Heart) Chakra
Sit in a comfortable meditative posture. Keep your spine erect and body relaxed. With the body
completely still, practice a few moments of natural mind meditation. Once the mind is sufficiently
clear, direct your attention to your heart or Anahata chakra. Make it as clear and pristine as possible,
glistening and sparkling with vibrant energy. When it is pure and translucent, radiating from your
heart, allow it to dissolve and transform itself into a green twelve-petalled lotus.
Concentrate on this area inside of your heart chakra. The heart is the main transducer of energy and
is also an organ of knowing; it is the key to developing clairsentience—divine sense of touch—and
also the place where “gnosis”, direct knowledge of the supreme reality, occurs.
This Anahata chakra is governed by the feminine principle or Shakti Goddess Kakini (Devotion).
This chakra serves as the seat of the memory of God through devotion, or bodhichitta, the mind of
the aspiration to enlightenment. This area contains the transcendental programs that transform
biological survival issues into forms of selfless compassion.
The heart energy is fed by the secret center, the seat of life-force energy. The heart chakra contains
all impulses of innate being or essence nature. At this center comes the input from both the physical
and mental bodies. The heart is like a mirror: if the input is unclear and distorted then so is the
feedback. To activate the heart essence, body and mind must be purified. The heart center balances
male/female (yin/yang) energies through pure unconditional love and cultivation of the higher
emotional body.
To awaken the heart chakra, think of someone that you love deeply. Feel your heart open, emanating
warmth and light. Now stay with this feeling and expand it until it becomes love for all beings. Allow
this quality of love-bliss to circulate from your heart center to the rest of your body. Extend love and
forgiveness toward yourself and to everyone on the Planet.
Feel the electromagnetic energy radiate from your heart. Feel your love and gratitude cradling the
whole Earth and all of life. When the Anahata center is fully awakened, the body is transmuted
Book of the Transcendence • Cosmic History Chronicles • Volume VI
by higher emotions and the heart chakra floods the subtle body with divine love; this flow of vital
energy is the love of God.
Yogis say this chakra can be awakened simply through repetition of a syllable or mantra until it
becomes the spontaneous form of your conscious awareness. This chakra is awakened in accordance
with the degree of our love and devotion to the Creator, or Higher Self—the divine consciousness
of All That Is.
Anahata affirmation: May the abundance of the galactic power of the higher dream generate forever the
compassionate heart of cosmic love!
Level 2: Activating Radial Plasma: Silio
Breathe deeply through your nostrils and allow your awareness to flow up your nose and down
into your heart chakra. Bring your awareness to the inner Silio plasma at the center of the chakra.
Visualize the white symbol radiating luminous streams of white light.
Feel the Silio plasma gathered in the heart chakra discharging waves of unconditional love throughout
the planet. Within this spiritual heart energy feel the mental electron-neutron charge telepathically
in resonance with the center of the Earth.
Repeat the following while focusing on your heart chakra: “My role is to accomplish the actions
of the Buddha, I discharge the mental electron-neutron at the center of the Earth.” The Buddha
is the enlightened mind. This potential exists in all beings. It is also known as the bodhichitta,
or mind of enlightenment.
Feel this love enlightenment energy within your heart. Keep expanding this beautiful energy from
your chest so that it sweeps powerfully through the planet bringing an end to all suffering. Feel
love and light pulsing out, wave after wave, for the healing of all afflictions, all the hungry souls,
the sick and the weary—healing them all with positive self-enlightening heart impulses. With
Chapter 5 • Synchrogalactic Yoga II: the Practices
this visualization, you may wish to chant the Buddhist Heart Sutra (Prajnaparamita): Gate Gate
Paragate Parasamgate Bodhi Svaha (gone, gone, gone, beyond, gone totally beyond, all hail the
Enlightened One).
Cover your left nostril with your left thumb and breathe deeply three times in and out through your
right nostril. Flash onto the Silio plasma and feel the new world of higher spiritual emotions vibrating
and emanating out of the heart chakra. Now cover your right nostril with your right thumb and
repeat the three breaths. Focus all of your attention to your heart chakra, Silio plasma, and draw in
with your breath the new enlightened reality—then release, breathing pure love through your heart
chakra into the world, emanating stabilizing vibrations to the astral and emotional body, soothing
the rest of the chakras.
The Silio charge completes the telepathic quantum and also completes the seven-part time atom.
At the center of Silio, feel the integrated charges of the sensory quantum: Dali, Seli, and Gamma,
transmuted by Kali and joined to the telepathic quantum, Alpha and Limi. Then by extending
your mind telepathically to the Earth’s core, discharge the mental electron-neutron at the center
of the Earth.
Note: One sensory quantum joined by the catalytic plasma to one telepathic
quantum makes one time atom. There are four time atoms per 28-day moon stored
at the center of the Earth as one Master Time Molecule (for full instructions see
7:7::7:7 Telektonon Revelation).
Level 3: Engaging the Seventh Mental Sphere (Holomind Perceiver)
Visualize the seventh mental sphere (holomind perceiver) located in the central corpus callosum
of the higher self and projected onto the corpus callosum of the 3-D and 4-D Self. This is the new
perceptual organ allowing us to access the noospheric programs inclusive of the akashic register. This
seventh mental sphere is also the seat of your “true self” or rigpa (wisdom self). All mental spheres
are unified by and accessed through the seventh mental sphere.
The holomind perceiver is an evolving organ, the noospheric sensing device opening us to an
entirely new cosmic reality. As the site and generator of the UR runes, the fourth-dimensional
timing matrices and the 441 Synchronotron Matrix, the holomind perceiver contains the fourth-
dimensional psychocultural programs and the holoneme of the psi bank grid, meaning that it holds
the hologram of the total perceived planetary reality.
Book of the Transcendence • Cosmic History Chronicles • Volume VI
Study of and meditation on the holomind perceiver prepares the mind to open to the galactic
dimension and receive an entirely new base of knowledge and perception. The holomind perceiver is
activated through diligent application and study of Cosmic History and the disciplined application of
the 441 matrix codes as they are regulated by the synchronic order.
Note: Cosmic thoughts are referred to as “mentation” waves, formulated as the correct laws of thought, and
are a function of the holomind perceiver. A “mentation” wave is a configuration of telepathic potentialities,
independent of language, and based on whole orders of supermental precepts, intrinsic to non-egoic knowing.
The mentation waves are a function of the holomind perceiver and operate at the central core, radiating out
to the different mental spheres as is needed. This is how the noosphere is established.
Level 4: Opening the Seventh Heptad Gate (441)
Visualize the green twelve-petaled lotus Anahata chakra with the white Silio
plasma and the etheric blue Sirius Beta 52/Element 113 superimposed over it at
your heart. Hold this visualization and feel the three intermingle as you chant the
sacred letter HRAIM as long as your breath can sustain it.
Locate Heptad Gate 441 and the etheric blue Sirius Beta 52/Element 113
signature on the 441 holomind perceiver. Its matrix location is V11:H11, eleventh
circuit, 9th time dimension, inner core time. Now locate it in your body at the top
center of your skull (see graphic at the end of this chapter).
Visualize the Sirius Beta 52/Element 113 above the white Silio in your heart chakra. Take the
Sirius B52 into the seventh mental sphere in the ninth time dimension (inner core time) where
it activates hyperplasmic enlightenment as hyperelectronic superconscious informing mental
spheres one and two as well as the hyperneutronic subliminal conscious informing mental
spheres three and four.
From the seventh mental sphere, mentally direct the Sirius B52/Element 113 to the heart chakra
and impress it above the Silio seal. Hold this with four alternate nostril breaths (four times in and
out through each nostril), followed by one breath through both nostrils.
Descend down the central column (spine), secreting the Sirius B52 hyperplasma into all 144,000
etheric fibers of the astral body. Practice the breath of fire, rapid shallow breathing through the nose,
transmuting any blockages or obscurations into streams of crystal clear hyperplasmic enlightenment
spreading throughout your entire nervous system.
Chapter 5 • Synchrogalactic Yoga II: the Practices
Chapter 5 • Synchrogalactic Yoga II: the Practices
Etheric blue Sirius B52/Element 113 vibrates subtle activating force into all etheric fibers. Descend
back down central channel until you get to the root chakra where you discharge the mental electron-
neutron to the center of the Earth. Ascend back up central channel and leave Silio at the heart
chakra. Return your consciousness to the seventh mental sphere in the center of the crown chakra,
then close and seal all seven Heptad Gates with the Sirius B52/Element 113. Relax and breathe slowly
and deeply at least 13 times.
Harmonic UR rune 113, Sirius-Beta 52/Element 113, hyperplasmic enlightenment: Tonality of
Sirius-Beta Encodes Seven Days of Creation as Interval of Lost Time Redeemed.
For additional practice: Locate Heptad Gate 441 on the Hunab Ku 21. Note that it corresponds to the
Magus of the Infinite, Lord of the Cube, Teacher of the Unity of Totality, Hunab Ku 21, the Source of
All Movement and Measure. Study the connections (see graphic at the end of this chapter).
Book of the Transcendence • Cosmic History Chronicles • Volume VI
Chakras 8 and 9: Root of Root and Crown of Crown
Root of Root chakra extends to and encompasses the Earth’s octahedral
core; it is the matrix for grounding cosmic mediumship. The Earth core
chakra is what gives us the ability to communicate with elemental spirits.
Crown of Crown chakra extends to and encompasses the Earth’s
noosphere. The noospheric crown is the higher mind control that tunes
us into the higher telepathic collective consciousness, the field of the
planetary logos, and to supreme supermental superconscious states of
cosmic consciousness.
The central activity of these two chakras is to coordinate evolutionary
functions or processes within the celestial body (one planet) wherein they
hold their energy field. The higher celestial logoi act on every aspect and
facet of consciousness evolution through the mental spheres; this opens up
a diverse range of possibilities of consciousness, perception, sensation, etc.
This extends to the upper realms into the laws of destiny, laws of creation and the absolute. This is
the realm of cosmic design that defines the infrastructure of the universe we live in. It is the realm of
the 5-D higher self, the body of radiance of the planetary logos as the transductive accumulator of all
hierarchies, commands and ordinances. As the root of root is the reservoir of cosmic mediumship, so
the crown of crown is fulfillment and realization of all cosmic consciousness possibilities.
<< Friday January 02, 2015 >>
<< Kin: 169 >>
Tone: 13 Cosmic
Transcend * Presence * Endure

Tribe: 9 Moon
Purify * Flow * Universal Water

Affirmation for: Red Cosmic Moon
I Endure in order to Purify
I Transcend Flow
I seal the process of universal water
With the Cosmic tone of Presence
I am guided by the power of Space
Red Moon is your Conscious Self – who you are and who you are becoming.Red Moon is the cosmic seed of awakened awareness. Consume it like a fruit, and let it blossom within you. You are on the quest of self-remembrance, of Godseed. If you work with the energy of Red Moon with clear awareness and attention, an awakened state of remembrance will naturally blossom within you. Remembrance means having direct access to your expanded presence through an intrinsic perception of unity. Remembrance is your recognition of the larger pattern and your connection to it, often facilitated through dreams, art, music, colors and creative pursuits. With focused attention, meditate on Red Moon and you will receive help with self-remembrance.

Red Moon is also a beacon or transmitting station. As you open to self-remembrance, you become a beacon and receiver for cosmic consciousness. This communication creates the gradual opening of the third eye, the eye within the mononlith of self. As this eye opens and your communication becomes more refined, you will notice more signs, signals and understanding coming to you. These are all for your growth and evolution – a feedback system from which you can gain insight about your journey.

The number for Red Moon is 9, which symbolizes the recurrence of great cycles. An example of such recurrence is the periodic return of master teachers to help awaken human beings on Earth. Nine is the number of Quetzalcoatl, buddha, and Christ. Red Moon is a symbol for great teachers who have come to translate universal wisdom to humanity, to embody the awakened state of consciousness that is accessible to all. Such teachers serve as a connection to the Divine and hold the promise of full self-mastery.

Take off the veil of forgetfulness. Become the beacon of awakened awareness. As you open to self-remembrance, you will freely receive divine guidance. Be with others who support your fullest expression.

Red Skywalker is your Higher Self & Guide.Red Skywalker is the skywalker, the time/space traveller who can jump dimensions to assist you in realizing heaven on Earth. Red Skywalker is unlimited in form but often chooses the form of the angelic messenger.

A person who embodies cosmic wisdom may be known as a sky-walker, sage or bodhisattva. When others see such light in human form, they feel the vibration of heaven. This vibration may be embodied by you or experienced with a guru, master, an energy such as Red Skywalker, or in a ‘chance’ encounter with an extraordinary person.

An encounter with the energy of Red Skywalker can spark a deep yearning within you for reunion with the Source. Yet from this place of love and compassion, you also have a desire (embodied in physical form) to serve the light. This is the place in you that has the courage to fully express unconditional love, the depths of your being. Red Skywalker asks you to live the new myth by bringing this heaven to Earth in your daily life. As this reality is lived, it touches and awakens the same truth in others: “They kingdom come, Thy will be done, on Earth as it is in heaven.”

Red Skywalker represents balance in your life – not static balance, but a dynamic equilibrium that includes both your present expression and your starseeded self. In Red Skywalker’s star-glyph you see that the pillars of heaven don’t appear to touch the Earth. You are the element that appears to be missing in the star-glyph. You are the one whose expression of the light assists in drawing the pillars of heaven to Earth.

Joining these pillars in yourself can be viewed as reuniting your male and female aspects. Together, in balance, we create the pillars of the etheric temples of heaven on Earth.

The natural state of every system moves toward balance that is fluid and free, as in dance. That balance is experienced differently by each person, but it often brings a sense of steadiness or centeredness even in the midst of movement and change. When you are dancing, you can use your very state of imbalance to create the fluidity of the dance.

Yellow Human is your Subconscious Self and Hidden Helper.Yellow Human is the grail, the golden fleece, the philosopher’s stone, the alchemical transmutation that turns baser materials into gold. It is the cornucopia, the paradox of emptiness and harvest, the still place that lies open and fallow, receiving the gifts.

Yellow Human offers you the gift of beginner’s mind in the fullness of union. Be receptive. Yellow Human is preparing your circuits for transformation. Become empty, that your thirst may be quenched by the bounteous gifts poured from the chalice of the spiralling galaxies. Open and receive all that Yellow Human offers in the chalice of your own body.

Eb asks you to strengthen and clear your physical vessel in order to prepare for the expanded energies of higher mind. Your chalice of self is being purified through vibrational adjustments in the brain/body system. With this quickening, adjustments are made and your circuits of consciousness are naturally transformed. Often this process is accompanied by the sensation of being altered or “rewired”. Higher centers of the brain and the light-sensitive pineal and pituitary glands are being activated to contain more light. This penetration brings you to a critical threshold, creating enormous change at the cellular level. It also activates soul memories and expands your concepts of reality.

With this expanded consciousness, your brain/body system is being cleared and fine-tuned so that you can create a sluiceway for the activation and acceleration of cosmic consciousness. This penetration of frequencies and its accompanying quickening is like upgrading the ‘hard drive’ of your biocomputer and activating the ‘hidden chip,’ the unused parts of your brain.

This is the foundation and awakening of your light body, a body crafted from the expansion of interstellar light within every cell. This body exists in and out of time and space and is able to experience and communicate freely with other dimensions and times. This is the resonant body within those whom Jose Arguelles calls the Servant-Warriors: “those humans who fully realize the dream light body within the physical body and understand the circuitry of the human organism – who use the light body to navigate the electromagnetic waters which we call the universe.”

The development of the light body involves strong interaction between Spirit and self as you prepare for entrance into the expanded chalice of Essence Self. In preparing this vessel, you enter into the rites of passage inherent to cosmic consciousness, and such rites eventually burst any false containers of self that cannot encompass the expanding chalice.

In meditation, expand to include all that you are. Then bring that feeling of expansion back into your physical self. In this process, you create a complex stability, opening a chalice of self that is fully rooted in human form. With this expansion, you are freed to explore within a new center that, paradoxically, seems to have to center. Yellow Human reveals the secret of being essence within form, everywhere and nowhere, “nothing” but present in all things.

The metaphor of the ever-expanding chalice is a powerful spiritual tool. This chalice represents the eternal container of light, ever filled with spirit’s fire and nourishment. It is the metaphor that represents the form in which your full potential can manifest. Each stage in your journey feels like the final one, but each stage then opens to an expanded form, releasing you into the next stage of consciousness.

All the gifts of the macrocosm pour out of the universal cornucopia. With an open heart, empty yourself to be filled with the fruits of your true desire. Through the temple of your body, lift the chalice of your expanded self and declare that it is filled with truth and clarity. Feel the ecstatic union with your full potential as a human being.

Meditate on the cornucopia with you at its center. Lift the chalice of your self-generated energy vortex to greet the vortex that will descend from above. As an open vessel, prepare a place to receive Yellow Human’s gifts. When you flow in unconditional love, all the fruits of the universe rush toward you for benediction.

Bathe in love’s essence as a child splashing in a pool on a hot day. Connect with others in joyous union. Use the broom of Yellow Human to sweep your day clear of past experiences and the issues and obstacles of small mind. In the spirit of Yellow Human function on all frequencies and power bands. Your cup is filled with the nectar of sacramental union. Be fulfilled by the great harvest of love!

Blue Storm represents your Challenge and Gift. With maturity and awareness this challenge will turn into a Focus. This is what you desire to learn in this lifetime.In the shadow of Cauac are held issues of spiritual separation. Cauac bridges the time and space between physical and nonphysical realities. This space can be viewed as a wall or veil between you and the Creator. The intensity of your desire to go ‘home’ is often met with equal force from the collective belief in separation. At times, you may even experience a sense of despair and helplessness over the apparent gap between you and Spirit.

Take courage – you will move through the wall! During this process, you may encounter intense feelings related to the original trauma of separation from Source. But equally intense feelings will take you through the wall to sacred reunion on the other side. On this journey, you will meet and deal with the charge of that part of your power that has not been freed into love. And in your yearning for your spiritual home, you will be assisted by ascended beings and masters whose purpose is to aid in your return.

A prominent shadow of Cauac is the fear of loss, the fear that by jumping into the unknown, you will lose everything: companions, loved ones, attachments, possessions – perhaps even your body or mind. Cauac is the crucible of revolution. This transformation is so inclusive that you may be reluctant to take risks for fear of the depth of change. You may even have feelings of despair or giving up. Though it can appear frightening, this process is actually there to serve you – to magnify your feelings until you address them, using them as fuel to propel you thorugh the transformational barrier itself.

Another shadow of Cauac falls on those who seek to escape or transcend earthly reality through addictions of all kinds – to substances, fears, self-doubts, material comforts, relationships, sexual obsessions, and work, among others. Addictions are like incomplete rites of passage, where compulsive behaviour creates a feeling of being trapped rather than being free. They may offer the appearance of freedom, but only spiritual connection can offer true freedom. On the other hand, the desire from a new or altered state can become an indirect spiritual path leading to transcendence. Thus the escape is incomplete, yet it eventually brings one to the opportunity of a profound transformation.

Any illusions you may have about self are magnified intensely through the lens of Cauac.

When you experience separation from Spirit’s love, questions of Essence Self and issues of archetypal self-worth arise. This separation springs from a basic denial of your oneness with Spirit. Denial can be seen as consciously or unconsciously holding something away from yourself, and it creates an energy loss and a feeling of disconnection from your potential. However, that which feels like it has been lost returns when you forgive yourself. Accept your human process, freeing the power and potential that has been locked in your fear-based emotions. Accept your behaviours as part of your learning experience. Let go of the rigid belief systems and judgements that hold denial in place.

Acceptance is the allowance that creates freedom, and separation is the guide to union. You may tend to deny your feelings and your growth process, thinking that you are above them or have already worked through them. This denial amplifies and intensifies the feelings until they come into awareness. Know that the intensity of your process is also healing your cellular and genetic memory, as well as the collective issues of humanity and the planet. Simply accept the truth of your experience, no matter how intense or difficult it may seem. Embrace everything that happens to you and you will regain all the vital energy that can be applied to the purposes of evolution.

White Dog is your Compliment – something that comes naturally to you. One of the gifts of White Dog is the calling in and recognition of other companions of destiny. Other beings with the same longing are waiting to meet and acknowledge you – beings who can see you as you authrentically are. When you have truly been seen, you feel empowered, and remembrance of a shared sacred trust is ignited. This is a natural process, divinely designed for recognition through vibrational affinity, freed from personal expectations.

White Dog can be seen as an access point for developing relationships with guides, totems, allies and guardians. There are many ways to work with these spiritual guides, including guided visualizations, shamanic journeys, and meditation. A useful construct is viewing them as aspects of yourself, part of your life stream that is asking to be integrated. Remember, there is no ‘other’. In this grand adventure, you are being asked to embody all that you are.Profound insights are garnered through shared purpose and relationship with others who are willing to be in their truth and integrity about the light and shadow aspects they perceive in themselves.

Similarly, intimate relationships can be viewed as unique opportunities to bring forward in each other deep emotional patterns to be transformed. In this case, those you have drawn to you hold the ability to assist you in your own integration as well. There are no mistakes. Be willing to look deeply into the truth held within any relationship. The expression of intimacy is a gift of love; the lack of it may be a symptom asking for honest communication and healing. It may also be guiding you to reevaluate your relationship and the purpose it is serving.White Dog signals a breakthrough in your life: new beginnings, new perceptions, new allies and friends. As you express more authentically who you are, you draw your true family closer to you.With your guides and companions, you have the ability to manifest your inspired visions and dreams. Recognize the eyes and hearts that spark the remembrance of a sacred trust.The harmonic wisdom of White Dog is affinity, the attraction of like vibration or substances for one another. Spiritual affinity is not limited to family kinship – it is part of the natural affinity between companions of destiny. Such companions of are drawn together by the same aligned force that draws iron filings to a magnet. Companions of destiny are drawn togther to do work that is naturally harmonious.On the surface at times, it may seem that you have little in common with these companions, yet the attraction remains. This is because Essence Selves are often committed to work together long before they meet in the physical world. This is a natural process of affinity, rather than a process motivated from personal desire. Follow this guidance into your unfoldment within the larger pattern.

Your Tone is Tone 13 – CosmicWild card, unseen forces, unexpected change, open system, touch of destiny, interdimensional shift.Thirteen is the ray of universal movement, the foundation of self within the foundation of Essence Self combined with the rhythm of the trinity. The Cosmic Tone of 13 touches you with the hand of unseen forces and radical change. It will catalyze into movement whatever resists change or is unexamined or stationary. You are being touched by fate, moved through identifications of self into open consciousness.Olin, the Mayan goddess of movement, asks you to surrender to the perfection of the larger pattern of your Essence Self. From the perspective of surrender and trust, what movement is being called for? Pay attention to synchronicities and seeming coincidences that jump into your awareness. Thirteen provides the possibility of a radical “frequency shift,” offering you limitless new openings. Become a skywalker. Be open and flexible, allowing changing reference points to become dynamic allies. Open to the workings of destiny offered by universal movement.

The above reading is an excerpt from the book, “The Mayan Oracle – Return Path to the Stars” by Ariel Spilsbury & Michael Bryner – Click here to email Ariel and purchase a signed copy!

Red Cosmic Moon Reading – Hide

Point Nineteen, concerning the bow of obeisance related to the passage “At all times I think to myself: / How can I cause living beings / to gain entry into the unsurpassed way / and quickly acquire the body of a Buddha?” (chapter sixteen, Life Span).

The Record of the Orally Transmitted Teachings says: The words “at all times” refer to the three existences. The word “think” indicates that the Buddha thinks of the Buddha nature inherent in all living beings. Consequently, the idea expressed in the words p.161“quickly acquire the body of a Buddha” is the same as that expressed in the words [of Bodhisattva Never Disparaging] “you are all certain to attain Buddhahood.” Hence this passage has been taken to represent the bodhisattva Never Disparaging’s bow of obeisance.
The Great Teacher T’ien-t’ai interprets it [in his Words and Phrases, volume ten] as “the replacement of the three vehicles with the one vehicle,” and as “the opening of the near and the revealing of the distant.” Treat this matter as secret. Treat it as secret.

Chapter Twenty-one: Supernatural Powers of the Thus Come One
Eight important points

Point One, concerning the supernatural powers (jinriki) of the Thus Come One Myoho-renge-kyo

Words and Phrases, volume ten, says, “[The Thus Come One has already been explained.] The word jin, or ‘supernatural,’ means that which is unfathomable; the word riki, or ‘powers,’ refers to vital or essential activity. That which is unfathomable is the profoundness of the eternal or inherent entity, while vital activity is the magnitude of the power that causes the changes in the phenomenal world. In this chapter, because the profound doctrines of the Buddha are entrusted to others, he displays his ten types of great powers beforehand. That is why the chapter is entitled ‘Supernatural Powers.’”

The Record of the Orally Transmitted Teachings says: This p.167Myoho-renge-kyo is not the Wonderful Law of Shakyamuni Buddha, because when the action of this chapter takes place, the essence of the sutra has already been transmitted or entrusted to the bodhisattva Superior Practices. Generally speaking, regarding this entrustment of Myoho-renge-kyo to the bodhisattva, the ceremony for entrustment begins in the “Treasure Tower” chapter (chapter eleven), the entity to be entrusted becomes apparent in the “Life Span” chapter (chapter sixteen), and the ceremony comes to an end in the “Supernatural Powers” and “Entrustment” chapters (chapters twenty-one and twenty-two).
The Thus Come One is the Thus Come One of the “Life Span” chapter, and the supernatural powers are the ten supernatural powers possessed by a Buddha. Essentially, the five characters that make up Myoho-renge-kyo are the “supernatural” (jin) entity that is unfathomable and the “powers” (riki) that cause the changes. These supernatural powers are the same as those referred to in the passage in the “Life Span” chapter that speaks of “the Thus Come One’s secret and his transcendental powers.” They are the daimoku, Nam-myoho-renge-kyo, that Nichiren and his followers are now chanting.
These ten supernatural powers apply both to the time when the Buddha is in the world and after his extinction. But in a deeper sense you should understand that all ten powers are in fact limited to the time after his extinction.
Again we may say that this chapter deals with the powers (riki) of the Thus Come One Myoho-renge-kyo and the deities (jin). The Thus Come One refers to all living beings, as has already been explained in the section on the “Life Span” chapter. Hence [T’ien-t’ai in his] commentary says that he has already explained the meaning of the term “Thus Come One.” The deities are the seven shrines of the Mountain King of Mount Hiei. You should reflect carefully on what this means.

Point Two, concerning the long broad tongue of the Buddha in the passage “He extended his long broad tongue upward till it reached the Brahma heaven.”

p.168The Record of the Orally Transmitted Teachings says: The word “broad” refers to the theoretical teaching, and the word “long” refers to the essential teaching. The word “tongue” refers to the Middle Way or the Dharma nature.
Because the Wonderful Law brings [enduring] benefits to all [living beings] of the Ten Worlds, it is characterized as spatially “broad” and temporally “long.”
Again, “broad” may be taken to refer to the Wonderful Law as it has existed since major world system dust particle kalpas ago, while “long” may be taken to refer to the Wonderful Law as it has existed since numberless major world system dust particle kalpas ago.
All these ways of looking at the matter refer alike to the Buddha’s long broad tongue.

Point Three, regarding the passage “And from all his pores he emitted immeasurable, countless beams of light that illuminated all the worlds in the ten directions. The other Buddhas, seated on lion seats underneath the numerous jeweled trees, did likewise.”

The Record of the Orally Transmitted Teachings says: The words “ten directions” refer to the Ten Worlds. The passage makes clear that plants and trees too are able to attain Buddhahood.
The word shishi, or “lion,” is made up of two elements, the first shi, which can be taken to mean a teacher, and the second shi, which can be taken to mean a disciple. These lion seats represent the Land of Eternally Tranquil Light. That is, [the lands of] the Ten Worlds in their original states are none other than land of Eternally Tranquil Light.

Point Four, on the words “When Shakyamuni Buddha and the other Buddhas beneath the jeweled trees thus displayed their supernatural powers, they did so for fully a hundred thousand years.”

The Record of the Orally Transmitted Teachings says: The word p.169“fully” or “to fill” refers to the Dharma-realm. “Hundred” means the hundred worlds, and “thousand” means the thousand factors. The passage is stating that “fully a hundred thousand years” means the principle of three thousand realms in a single moment of life.
One instant, one moment of life, too, lasts for fully a hundred thousand years, and in this way the ten types of supernatural powers become manifest. The ten types of supernatural powers are the supernatural powers of the Ten Worlds. The supernatural powers of each one of the Ten Worlds originate from the single Law Nam-myoho-renge-kyo.

Point Five, regarding the passage that describes how the earth in all these worlds quaked and trembled in six different ways, and the living beings in their midst all saw in this sahā world the innumerable Buddhas who were seated on lion seats under the numerous jeweled trees

The Record of the Orally Transmitted Teachings says: The word “earth” represents the realm of the environment. The living beings there represent the realm of living beings. And the numerous jeweled trees that the Buddhas are seated under represent the realm of the five components. The passage illustrates the principle of three thousand realms in a single moment of life.

Point Six, regarding the passage “Beyond these immeasurable, boundless hundreds, thousands, ten thousands, millions of asamkhya worlds there is a land named sahā, and in it a Buddha named Shakyamuni.”

The Record of the Orally Transmitted Teachings says: The bodhisattvas of the essential teaching employing the power of great forbearance to proclaim and propagate Myoho-renge-kyo is known as sahā. Forbearance is the Land of Eternally Tranquil Light. This mind of forbearance is called Shakyamuni Buddha. Sahā means a world in which one must exercise forbearance and learn to endure.

p.170Point Seven, regarding the passage “As the light of the sun and moon / can banish all obscurity and gloom, / so this person as he passes through the world / can wipe out the darkness of living beings.”

The Record of the Orally Transmitted Teachings says: “This person” refers to Bodhisattva Superior Practices, “the world” refers to the great country of Japan. “The darkness of living beings” refers to the grave malady of slandering the Law. That which “can wipe out” this malady is Nam-myoho-renge-kyo. Now Nichiren and his followers are the ones referred to here.

Point Eight, regarding the passage “So this person as he passes through the world / can wipe out the darkness of living beings, / causing immeasurable numbers of bodhisattvas / in the end to dwell in the single vehicle. / Therefore a person of wisdom, / hearing how keen are the benefits to be gained, / after I have passed into extinction / should accept and uphold this sutra. / Such a person assuredly and without doubt / will attain the Buddha way.”

The Record of the Orally Transmitted Teachings says: The expression “in the end” or “ultimately” refers to widely declaring and propagating the teachings. “To dwell in the single vehicle” means that one should dwell in the single Law of Nam-myoho-renge-kyo. “Such a person” refers to an ordinary mortal who has reached the stage of hearing the name and words of the truth, the second of the six stages of practice. “The Buddha way” refers to the stage of ultimate enlightenment, the sixth and highest stage of practice.
The word “doubt” here indicates darkness, or ignorance, as fundamental doubt and perplexity. The passage makes clear that now, in the Latter Day of the Law, one should carry out only this single practice, that of accepting and upholding “this sutra,” in order to attain Buddhahood.

Udayana[優塡王] (Skt; Pali Udena; Jpn Uden-ō)
Uddaka Rāmaputta[鬱頭藍弗・優陀羅羅摩子] (Pali; Skt Udraka Rāmaputra; Jpn Uzuranhotsu, Utsuzuranfutsu, or Udararamashi)
Uddiyāna[烏仗那国] (Skt; Jpn Ujōna-koku)
Udraka Rāmaputra[鬱頭藍弗・優陀羅羅摩子] (Skt; Jpn Uzuranhotsu, Utsuzuranfutsu, or Udararamashi)
udumbara[優曇華] (Skt, Pali; Jpn udonge)
Udyāna[烏仗那国] (Skt; Jpn Ujōna-koku)
Ueno, the lay nun[上野尼] (d. 1284) (Jpn Ueno-ama)
Ujjayinī[烏闍衍那国] (Skt; Pali Ujjenī; Jpn Ujaenna-koku)
Ulūka[優楼迦・漚楼僧佉] (Skt; Jpn Uruka or Urusōgya)
Umegiku-nyo[梅菊女] (d. 1267)
Unborn Enemy[未生怨] (Jpn Mishō’on)
unconditioned, the[無為] (Skt asamskrita; Jpn mui)
Unequalled One[阿娑摩] (Skt, Pali asama; Jpn ashama)
Unexcelled Worthy[無上士] (Skt, Pali anuttara; Jpn mujōshi)
unfixed karma[不定業] (Jpn fujō-gō)
unhindered wisdom[無礙智] (Jpn muge-chi)
unification of the three truths[円融の三諦] (Jpn en’yū-no-santai)
Universal Brightness(1) [普明王] (Skt Shrutasoma; Pali Sutasoma; Jpn Fumyō-ō); (2) [普明如来] (Skt Samantaprabhāsa; Jpn Fumyō-nyorai)
“Universal Gateway” chapter[普門品] (Jpn Fumon-bon)
“Universal Gateway of the Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds” chapter[観世音菩薩普門品] (Jpn Kanzeon-bosatsu-fumon-hon)
Universal Practice[普事比丘] (Jpn Fuji-biku)
Universal Worthy[普賢菩薩] (Skt Samantabhadra; Jpn Fugen-bosatsu)
“Universal Worthy” chapter[普賢品] (Jpn Fugen-bon)
Universal Worthy Sutra[普賢経] (Chin P’u-hsien-ching; Jpn Fugen-kyō)
unlabeled, the[無記] (Skt avyākrita; Jpn muki)
Unparalleled One[阿娑摩] (Jpn ashama)
unseen crown of the head[無見頂相] (Jpn mukenchō-sō)
unsurpassed enlightenment[無上菩提] (Skt anuttara-sambodhi; Jpn mujō-bodai)
unsurpassed way[無上道] (Jpn mujō-dō)
upadesha[優婆提舎] (Skt; Jpn ubadaisha)
Upagupta[優婆毱多] (Skt; Jpn Ubakikuta)
Upāli[優婆離] (Skt, Pali; Jpn Ubari)
upāsaka[優婆塞] (Skt, Pali; Jpn ubasoku)
upāsikā[優婆夷] (Skt, Pali; Jpn ubai)
Upholder of the Nation[持国天] (Skt Dhritarāshtra; Jpn Jikoku-ten)
uposhadha[布薩] (Skt; Pali uposatha; Jpn fusatsu)
urabon[盂蘭盆] (Jpn)
Urumanda, Mount[優留曼荼山] (Skt; Jpn Urumanda-sen)
Uruvilvā[優楼頻螺] (Skt; Pali Uruvelā; Jpn Urubinra)
Uruvilvā Kāshyapa[優楼頻螺迦葉] (Skt; Pali Uruvelā Kassapa; Jpn Urubinra-kashō)
Utmost Light and Purity Heaven[極光浄天] (Jpn Gokukōjō-ten)
Utpalavarnā[蓮華色比丘尼] (Skt; Pali Uppalavannā; Jpn Rengeshiki-bikuni)
Utsubusa, the lady of[内房女房] (n.d.) (Jpn Utsubusa-nyōbō)
Utsubusa, the lay nun of[内房の尼] (n.d.) (Jpn Utsubusa-no-ama)
Uttarakuru[鬱単越・倶盧洲] (Skt, Pali; Jpn Uttan’otsu or Kuru-shū)
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Supernatural Powers of the Thus Come One
Lotus Sutra: 21
Supernatural Powers of the Thus Come One
At that time the bodhisattvas mahasattva who had emerged from the earth, numerous as the dust particles of a thousand worlds, all in the presence of the Buddha single-mindedly pressed their palms together, gazed up in reverence at the face of the honored one, and said to the Buddha: “World-Honored One, after the Buddha has entered extinction, in the lands where the emanations of the world-honored one are present, and in the place where the Buddha has passed into extinction, we will preach this sutra far and wide. Why? Because we ourselves wish to gain this great Law, true and pure, to accept, uphold, read, recite, explain, preach, transcribe, and offer alms to it.”
At that time the world-honored one, in the presence of the men such as Manjushri, the immeasurable hundreds, thousands, ten thousands, millions of bodhisattvas mahasattva who from of old had dwelled in the saha world, and the monks, nuns, laymen, laywomen, the heavenly beings, dragons, yakshas, gandharvas, asuras, garudas, kimnaras, mahoragas, the human and nonhuman beings—before all these he displayed his great supernatural powers. He extended his long broad tongue upward till it reached the Brahma heaven, and from all his pores he emitted immeasurable, countless, colored beams of light that illuminated all the worlds in the ten directions.
The other buddhas, seated on lion seats underneath the numerous jeweled trees, did likewise, extending their long broad p.315tongues and emitting immeasurable beams of light. When Shakyamuni Buddha and the other buddhas beneath the jeweled trees thus displayed their supernatural powers, they did so for fully a hundred thousand years. After that they drew in their tongues again, coughed in unison, and all together snapped their fingers. The sounds made by these two actions filled all the buddha worlds in the ten directions, and the earth in all of them quaked and trembled in six different ways.
The living beings in their midst, the heavenly beings, dragons, yakshas, gandharvas, asuras, garudas, kimnaras, mahoragas, the human and nonhuman beings, thanks to the Buddha’s supernatural powers, all saw in this saha world the immeasurable, boundless hundreds, thousands, ten thousands, millions of buddhas seated on lion seats under the numerous jeweled trees, and also saw Shakyamuni Buddha and Many Treasures Thus Come One seated together on a lion seat in the treasure tower. Moreover, they saw immeasurable, boundless hundreds, thousands, ten thousands, millions of bodhisattvas mahasattva and the four kinds of believers who reverently surrounded Shakyamuni Buddha.
When they had seen these things, they were all filled with great joy, having gained what they had never had before. At that time the heavenly beings in the midst of the sky cried out with loud voices, saying: “Beyond these immeasurable, boundless hundreds, thousands, ten thousands, millions of asamkhya worlds there is a land named saha, and in it a buddha named Shakyamuni. Now for the sake of the bodhisattvas mahasattva he is preaching the great vehicle sutra called the Lotus of the Wonderful Law, a teaching to instruct the bodhisattvas, one that is guarded and kept in mind by the buddhas. You must respond with joy from the depths of your hearts, and also offer obeisance and alms to Shakyamuni Buddha!”
When the various living beings heard the voices in the sky, they pressed their palms together, faced the saha world, and spoke these words: “Hail, Shakyamuni Buddha! Hail, Shakyamuni Buddha!”
Then they took different kinds of flowers, incense, necklaces, p.316banners, and canopies, and the ornaments, rare jewels, and other wonderful articles that adorned their persons, and all together scattered them far off in the direction of the saha world. The objects thus scattered poured in from the ten directions like clouds gathering together. Then they changed into a jeweled curtain that completely covered the area where the buddhas were. At that time the worlds in the ten directions were opened up so that there was unobstructed passage from one to the other and they were like a single buddha land.
At that time the Buddha spoke to Superior Practices and the others in the great assembly of bodhisattvas, saying: “The supernatural powers of the buddhas, as you have seen, are immeasurable, boundless, inconceivable. If in the process of entrusting this sutra to others I were to employ these supernatural powers for immeasurable, boundless hundreds, thousands, ten thousands, millions of asamkhya kalpas to describe the benefits of the sutra, I could never finish doing so. To put it briefly, all the doctrines possessed by the thus come one, all the freely exercised supernatural powers of the thus come one, the storehouse of all the secret essentials of the thus come one, all the most profound matters of the thus come one—all these are proclaimed, revealed, and clearly expounded in this sutra.
“For this reason, after the thus come one has entered extinction, you must single-mindedly accept, uphold, read, recite, explain, preach, and transcribe it, and practice it as directed. In any of the various lands, wherever there are those who accept, uphold, read, recite, explain, preach, transcribe, or practice it as directed, or wherever the sutra rolls are preserved, whether in a garden, a forest, beneath a tree, in monks’ quarters, in the lodgings of white-robed laymen, in palaces, or in mountain valleys or the wide wilderness, in all these places you should erect towers and offer alms. Why? You should understand that such spots are places of enlightenment. In such places have the buddhas gained supreme perfect enlightenment, in such places have the buddhas turned the wheel of the Law, in such places have the buddhas entered parinirvana.”
p.317At that time the world-honored one, wishing to state his meaning once more, spoke in verse form, saying:

The buddhas, saviors of the world,
abide in their great transcendental powers,
and in order to please living beings
they display immeasurable supernatural powers.
Their tongues reach to the Brahma heaven,
their bodies emit countless beams of light.
For the sake of those who seek the buddha way
they manifest these things that are rarely seen.
The sound of the buddhas coughing,
the sound of them snapping their fingers,
is heard throughout the lands in the ten directions
and the earth in all those lands moves in six ways.
Because after the Buddha has passed into extinction
there will be those who can uphold this sutra,
the buddhas are all delighted
and manifest immeasurable supernatural powers.
Because they wish to entrust this sutra,
they praise and extol the person who accepts and upholds it,
and though they should do so for immeasurable kalpas
they could never exhaust their praises.
The benefits gained by such a person
are boundless and inexhaustible,
like the vast sky in the ten directions
that no one can set a limit to.
One who can uphold this sutra
has in effect already seen me,
and likewise has seen Many Treasures Buddha
and the buddhas that are emanations of my body.
And he also sees me today
as I teach and convert the bodhisattvas.
One who can uphold this sutra
causes me and my emanations,
p.318and Many Treasures Buddha who has already entered extinction,
all to be filled with joy.
The buddhas who are present in the ten directions
and those of past and future ages—
he will see them too, offer alms to them,
and cause them to be filled with joy.
The secret essentials of the Law
gained by the buddhas who sat in places of enlightenment—
one who can uphold this sutra
will gain them too before long.
One who can uphold this sutra
will delight in endlessly expounding
the principles of the various doctrines
and their names and phrases,
like a wind in the open sky
moving everywhere without hindrance or block.
After the thus come one has passed into extinction,
this person will know the sutras preached by the Buddha,
their causes and conditions and their proper sequence,
and will preach them truthfully in accordance with principle.
As the light of the sun and moon
can banish all obscurity and gloom,
so this person as he advances through the world
can wipe out the darkness of living beings,
causing immeasurable numbers of bodhisattvas
in the end to dwell in the single vehicle.
Therefore a person of wisdom,
hearing how keen are the benefits to be gained,
after I have passed into extinction
should accept and uphold this sutra.
Such a person assuredly and without doubt
will attain the buddha way.

Glossary U
Udayana A king of Kaushāmbī in India. He converted to Buddhism at the urging of his wife and became a patron of the Buddha. It is said that when Shakyamuni ascended to the heaven of the thirty-three gods to preach the teaching to his mother, King Udayana lamented that he could no longer see the Buddha and fell ill. Thereupon he ordered his retainers to fashion an image of the Buddha, the first such image ever made. He is also said to have been taken captive by the ruler of another Indian kingdom and been imprisoned there for seven years.
udumbara (Skt) A mythical plant said to bloom only once every three thousand years to herald the advent of a gold-wheel-turning king or a Buddha. In the Buddhist scriptures, the udumbara often symbolizes the rarity of encountering a Buddha.
Uemon no Tayū See Ikegami Munenaka.
Ulūka Also called Kanāda. The founder of the Vaisheshika school, one of the six major schools of Brahmanism in ancient India. Ulūka is also known as one of the three ascetics, together with Kapila and Rishabha.
unconditioned, the That which is not created, that is, the eternal, unchanging, and pure. “The unconditioned” refers to Buddhist truths and ideals such as nirvana and enlightenment. Its opposite, “the conditioned,” refers to all phenomena that are produced through causation, which are changeable and impermanent.
understanding of the non-birth and non-extinction of all phenomena See realization of the non-birth and non-extinction of all phenomena.
unification of the three truths A principle expounded by T’ien-t’ai on the basis of the Lotus Sutra, explaining the three truths of non-substantiality, temporary existence, and the Middle Way as an integral whole, each of the three possessing all three within itself. It teaches that these three are inseparable phases of all phenomena.
Universal Brightness (1) (Skt Shrutasoma) The name of Shakyamuni in a past existence when he was a king engaged in the pāramitā, or practice, of observing the precepts. This king appears in the Sutra on the Wise and the Foolish, The Treatise on the Great Perfection of Wisdom, and elsewhere. The king Universal Brightness and 99 other kings (999 kings according to another source) had been captured by the king Spotted Feet and were about to be beheaded. The king Universal Brightness asked Spotted Feet to let him first carry out a promise he had made to give offerings to a certain monk. Spotted Feet granted him seven days’ grace to fulfill his promise, and the king Universal Brightness returned to his country, where he gave the monk offerings and transferred the throne to his son. After proclaiming to his people that speaking only truthful words, or never speaking falsely, is the most important precept, he returned to the king Spotted Feet; the latter was so impressed by Universal Brightness’s integrity that he released him and the other kings and then converted to Buddhism. (2) The name that Kaundinya and other voice-hearer disciples will assume when they attain Buddhahood, according to the “Five Hundred Disciples” chapter of the Lotus Sutra. In this chapter, Shakyamuni predicts that a group of five hundred and another group of seven hundred arhats will in the future all become Buddhas named Universal Brightness.
Universally Surpassing Meditation Sutra A sutra translated into Chinese in 285 by the Central Asian monk Dharmaraksha. The sutra depicts Bodhisattva Manjushrī, in the presence of Shakyamuni Buddha, transforming himself into a Buddha and expounding on bodhisattva practice from the standpoint of the teaching on wisdom and non-substantiality. In the sutra, King Ajātashatru, who had opposed Shakyamuni Buddha, is given a prophecy that he will attain Buddhahood in the future.
Universal Worthy One of the two bodhisattvas, the other being Manjushrī, who attend Shakyamuni Buddha and lead the other bodhisattvas. Universal Worthy represents the virtues of truth and practice. In the “Universal Worthy” chapter of the Lotus Sutra, he vows to protect the sutra and its votaries.
Universal Worthy Sutra A one-volume sutra that was preached three months before Shakyamuni’s passing. This sutra is regarded as a continuation of the last, “Universal Worthy,” chapter of the Lotus Sutra and as the epilogue to the Lotus Sutra. It describes how to meditate on Bodhisattva Universal Worthy and explains the benefit of this practice.
Utpalavarnā A nun and follower of Shakyamuni Buddha. She is said to have attained the state of arhat under the guidance of Mahāprajāpatī. She was beaten to death by Devadatta when she reproached him for his evil acts.

Appendix D
Chinese Personal Names and Their Japanese Equivalents

Note: Chinese names are romanized according to the traditional Wade-Giles system. The pinyin romanization appears in parentheses.

Chinese Names Japanese Names

Ai (Ai), Duke Ai Kō (哀公)
Chang-an (Zhangan) Shōan (章安)
Chang Chieh (Zhang Jie) Chō Kai (張階)
Chang Liang (Zhang Liang) Chō Ryō (張良)
Chan-jan (Zhanran) Tannen (湛然)
Ch’ao Fu (Chao fu) Sō Fu (巣父)
Chao Kao (Zhao Gao) Chō Kō (趙高)
Ch’eng (Cheng), King Sei-ō (成王)
Ch’eng-kuan (Chengguan) Chōkan (澄観)
Ch’en P’ing (Chen Ping) Chin Pei (陳平)
Chia-hsiang (Jiaxiang) Kajō (嘉祥)
Chieh (Jie), King Ketsu-ō (桀王)
Chien-chen (Jianzhen) Ganjin (鑑真)
Chih-chou (Zhizhou) Chishū (智周)
Chih-i (Zhiyi) Chigi (智顗)
Chih-tan (Zhidan) Chitan (智誕)
Chih Tao-lin (Zhi Daolin) Shi Dōrin (支道林)
Chih-tsang (Zhizang) Chizō (智蔵)
Chih-yen (Zhiyan) Chigon (智儼)
Chih-yüan (Zhiyuan) Shion (志遠)
Ch’i Li-chi (Qi Liji) Ki Riki (綺里季)
Ching (Jing), Emperor Kei-tei (景帝)
Ch’ing-liang (Qingliang) Shōryō (清涼)
Ching-ying (Jingying) Jōyō (浄影)
Chin-kang-chih (Jingangzhi) Kongōchi (金剛智)
Ch’in-tsung (Qinzong), Emperor Kinsō-tei (欽宗帝)
Chi-tsang (Jizang) Kichizō (吉蔵)
Chiu-fang Yin (Jiufang Yin) Kyūhō In (九方堙)
Chou (Zhou), King Chū-ō (紂王)
Chou Po (Zhou Bo) Shū Botsu (周勃)
Chuang Chou (Zhuang Zhou) Sō Shū (荘周)
Chuang Tzu (Zhuangzi) Sōshi (荘子)
Chu Fa-lan (Zhu Falan) Jiku Hōran (竺法蘭)
Ch’ung-hua (Chonghua) Chōka (重華)
Chu Tao-sheng (Zhu Daosheng) Jiku Dōshō (竺道生)
Fa-chau (Fazhao) Hōshō (法照)
Fa-ch’üan (Faquan) Hassen (法全)
Fan K’uai (Fan Kuai) Han Kai (樊噲)
Fa-pao (Fabao) Hōbō (法宝)
Fa-tao (Fadao) Hōdō (法道)
Fa-tsang (Fazang) Hōzō (法蔵)
Fa-yüeh (Fayue) Hōgatsu (法月)
Fa-yün (Fayun) Hōun (法雲)
Fua-yen (Huayan) Kegon(華厳)
Fu-ch’a (Fucha) Fusa (夫差)
Fu Hsi (Fu Xi) Fukki (伏羲)
Fu Ta-shih (Fu Dashi) Fu Daishi (傅大士)
Han-kuang (Hanguang) Gankō (含光)
Hsia-huang (Xiahuang) Kakō (夏黄)
Hsiang (Xiang), King Jō-ō (襄王)
Hsiang-hsiang (Xiangxiang) Kōzō (香象)
Hsiang Yü (Xiang Yu) Kō U (項羽)
Hsien-shou (Xianshou) Genju (賢首)
Hsien-tsung (Xianzong), Emperor Kensō-tei (憲宗帝)
Hsi-lien (Xilian) Kiren (熈連)
Hsing-huang (Xinghuang) Kōkō (興皇)
Hsing-man (Xingman) Gyōman (行満)
Hsin-hsing (Xinzing) Shingyō (信行)
Hsi-shih (Xishi) Seishi (西施)
Hsüan-lang (Xuanlang) Genrō (玄朗)
Hsüan-tsang (Xuanzang) Genjō (玄奘)
Hsüan-tsung (Xuanzong), Emperor Gensō-tei (玄宗帝); Sensō-tei (宣宗帝)
Hsü Yu (Xu You) Kyo Yū (許由)
Huai-kan (Huaigan) Ekan (懐感)
Hu Hai (Huhai) Ko Gai (胡亥)
Hui (Hui), Emperor Kei-tei (恵帝)
Hui-k’o (Huike) Eka (慧可)
Hui-kuan (Huiguan) Ekan (慧観)
Hui-kuang (Huiguang) Ekō (慧光)
Hui-kuo (Huiguo) Keika (恵果)
Hui-neng (Huineng) Enō (慧能)
Hui-ssu (Huisi) Eshi (慧思)
Hui-tsung (Huizong), Emperor Kisō-tei (徽宗帝)
Hui-wen (Huiwen) Emon (慧文)
Hui-yüan (Huiyuan) Eon (慧遠)
Hung-jen (Hongren) Kōnin (弘忍)
I-chen (Yizhen) Gishin (義真)
I-hsing (Yixing) Ichigyō (一行)
I-lung (Yilong) Iryō (遺竜)
Juan Chi (Ruan Ji) Gen Seki (阮籍)
Jung Ch’i-ch’i (Rong Qiqi) Ei Keiki (栄啓期)
Kao-tsu (Gaozu), Emperor Kōso (高祖)
Kou-chien (Goujian) Kōsen (勾践)
Kuang-hsiu (Guangxiu) Kōshu (広修)
Kuan Lung-feng (Guan Longfeng) Kan Ryūhō (関竜蓬)
Kuan-ting (Guanding) Kanjō (灌頂)
K’uei-chi (Kuiji) Kiki (窺基)
Lao Tan (Lao Dan) Rō Tan (老聃)
Lao Tzu (Laozi) Rōshi (老子)
Li (Li) Ri (李夫人)
Liang-hsü (Liangxu) Ryōsho (良諝)
Liang-pi (Liangbi) Ryōhi (良賁)
Li Ju-hsien (Li Ruxian) Ri Josen (李如暹)
Li Ling (Li Ling) Ri Ryō (李陵)
Li Ssu (Li Si) Ri Shi (李斯)
Liu Pang (Liu Bang) Ryū Hō (劉邦)
Liu Ts’ung (Liu Cong) Ryū Sō (劉聡)
Luan Pa (Luan Ba) Ran Pa (欒巴)
Lu-li (Luli) Rokuri (甪里)
Lü Wang (Lu Wang) Ryo Bō (呂望)
Man (Man) Man (満)
Mao Hsi (Maoxi) Mō Ki (毛喜)
Miao-lo (Miaole) Myōraku (妙楽)
Min (Min), Emperor Bin-tei (愍帝)
Ming (Ming), Emperor Mei-tei (明帝)
Ming-sheng (Mingsheng) Myōshō (明勝)
Mo Hsi (Moxi) Bakki (妺嬉)
Nan-yüeh (Nanyue) Nangaku (南岳)
Pao-chih (Baozhi) Hōshi (宝誌)
Pao-kung (Baowang) Hōkō (宝公)
Pao Ssu (Baosi) Hō Ji (褒姒)
Piao Ch’ing-mu (Biao Qingmu) Hyō Shōmoku (表青目)
Pien Ho (Bian Ho) Ben Ka (卞和)
Pi Kan (Bi Gan) Hi Kan (比干)
Po Chü-i (Bo Juyi) Haku Kyoi (白居易)
P’u-kuang (Puguang) Fukō (普光)
Pu-k’ung (Bukong) Fukū (不空)
San-chieh (Sanjie) Sangai (三階)
Seng-chao (Sengzhao) Sōjō (僧肇)
Seng-ts’an (Sengcan) Sōsan (僧璨)
Shan-tao (Shandao) Zendō (善導)
Shan-wu-wei (Shanwuwei) Zemmui (善無畏)
Shao-k’ang (Shaokang) Shōkō (少康)
Shen Nung (Shen Nong) Shin Nō (神農)
Shun (Shun), Emperor Shun (舜)
Shun-hsiao (Shunxiao) Jungyō (順暁)
Shun-tsung (Shunzong), Emperor Junsō-tei (順宗帝)
Shu-pao (Shubao) Shukuhō (淑宝)
Sung (Song) Sū (嵩)
Sung-ling (Songling) Sūryō (嵩霊)
Su Wu (Su Wu) So Bu (蘇武)
Ta Chi (Daji) Dakki (妲己)
T’ai-kung Wang (Taigong Wang) Taikō Bō (太公望)
Tai-tsung (Daizong), Emperor Daisō-tei (代宗帝)
T’ai-tsung (Taizong), Emperor Taisō-tei (太宗帝)
Tan (Dan), the Duke of Chou (Zhou) Shūkō Tan (周公旦)
T’ang (Tang), King Tō-ō (湯王)
T’an-luan (Tanluan) Donran (曇鸞)
Tao-ch’o (Daochuo) Dōshaku (道綽)
Tao-hsien (Daoxian) Dōsen (道暹)
Tao-hsin (Daoxin) Dōshin (道信)
Tao-hsüan (Daoxuan) Dōsen (道宣)
Tao-lang (Daolang) Dōrō (道朗)
Tao-sui (Daosui) Dōsui (道邃)
Te-tsung (Dezong), Emperor Tokusō-tei (徳宗帝)
T’ien-t’ai (Tiantai) Tendai (天台)
Ts’ung-i (Congyi) Jūgi (従義)
Tsung-jui (Zongrui) Shūei (宗叡)
Tsun-shih (Zunshi) Junshiki (遵式)
Tung-fang Shuo (Dongfang Shuo) Tōhō Saku (東方朔)
Tung-yüan (Dongyuan) Tōen (東園)
Tu-shun (Dushun) Tojun (杜順)
Tzu-an (Zian) Shian (子安)
Tz’u-en (Cien) Jion (慈恩)
Tzu Ssu (Zisi) Shi Shi (子思)
Wang Chao-chün (Wang Zhaojun) Ō Shōkun (王昭君)
Wang Mang (Wang Mang) Ō Mō (王莽)
Wei-chüan (Weijuan) Yuiken (維蠲)
Wei Yüan-sung (Wei Yuansong) Ei Gensū (衛元嵩)
Wen (Wen), Emperor Bun-tei (文帝)
Wen (Wen), King Bun-ō (文王)
Wu (Wu), Empress Sokutembu-kō (則天武后)
Wu (Wu), King Bu-ō (武王)
Wu Ch’eng (Wu Cheng) Mu Sei (務成)
Wu Ching (Wu Jing) Go Kyō (呉競)
Wu-lung (Wulong) Oryō (烏竜)
Wu-tsung (Wuzong), Emperor Busō-tei (武宗帝)
Wu Tzu-hsü (Wu Zixu) Go Shisho (伍子胥)
Yang Kuei-fei (Yang Guifei) Yō Kihi (楊貴妃)
Yao (Yao), Emperor Gyō (堯)
Yao Hsing (Yao Xing) Yō Kō (姚興)
Yen Hui (Yan Hui) Gan Kai (顔回)
Yin Hsi (Yin Xi) In Ki (尹喜)
Yin Shou (Yin Shou) In Ju (尹寿)
Yu (You), King Yū-ō (幽王)
Yü (Yu) U (禹)
Yüan-cheng (Yuanzheng) Genjō (元政)
Yu-wen (Youwen), king Ubun-ō (宇文王)
Yu-wen Yung (Youwen Yong) Ubun Yō (宇文邕)

193. On the Attainment of Buddhahood by Women: Nyonin jōbutsu shō (女人成仏抄), 470.
THE “Devadatta” chapter [of the Lotus Sutra] states: “The Buddha said to the monks: ‘In future ages if there are good men or good women who, on hearing the “Devadatta” chapter of the Lotus Sutra of the Wonderful Law, believe and revere it with pure hearts and harbor no doubts or perplexities, they will never fall into hell or the realm of hungry spirits or of beasts, but will be born in the presence of the Buddhas of the ten directions, and in the place where they are born they will constantly hear this sutra. If they are born among human or heavenly beings, they will enjoy exceedingly wonderful delights, and if they are born in the presence of a Buddha, they will be born by transformation from lotus flowers.’”
This “Devadatta” chapter contains two admonitions.1 One makes clear how Devadatta propagated the Lotus Sutra and enabled Shakyamuni to gain the way.2 The other explains how Manjushrī expounded the sutra and enabled the dragon king’s daughter to attain Buddhahood.
This chapter was kept hidden in the imperial palace in Ch’ang-an and only the remaining twenty-seven chapters of the sutra were spread throughout the world. Hence, during the reign of seven royal houses, from the time of the Ch’in dynasty to that of the Liang, this twenty-seven chapter version of the sutra was read and lectured upon. Later, a priest named Dharma Teacher Man,3 having realized that the “Devadatta” chapter was lacking in the version of the Lotus Sutra then in circulation, searched for and found the missing chapter in the city of Ch’ang-an. Since then, the twenty-eight chapter version of the sutra has been the one in general circulation.
This chapter describes [the benefits of] those who believe and revere the “Devadatta” chapter with pure hearts, and states as follows: (1) they will never fall into the three evil paths; (2) they will be born in the presence of the Buddhas of the ten directions; (3) they will be born in a place where they will constantly hear this sutra; (4) if they are born among human or heavenly beings, they will enjoy exceedingly wonderful delights; and (5) if they are born in the presence of a Buddha, they will be born by transformation from lotus flowers.
Now when any of the many living beings, in their delusion, stray from the capital city of the essential nature of phenomena, the true aspect of reality, and enter the village of illusory thought and topsy-turvy views, they will thereafter be subject to the three p.307types of action, physical, verbal, and mental, which will produce few good roots and many evil deeds.
The sutra texts4 tell us that a single person in the course of a single day has eight million four thousand thoughts. And all of these various thoughts produce karma that will lead to rebirth in the three evil paths.
We living beings in this threefold world with its twenty-five realms5 keep repeating a cycle of transmigration; like birds flitting from tree to tree in a forest, we die and are born again, are born again and then die. Revolving like cartwheels, we go round and round in a process of birth and death that has no beginning and no end, creatures under the heavy burden of evil karma.
Thus the Contemplation on the Mind-Ground Sutra states, “Sentient beings transmigrate, born into the six realms of existence, like cartwheels turning without beginning or end. At times they are fathers or mothers, at times they are men or women, through birth after birth, existence after existence forming bonds of obligation with one another.”
The second volume of the Lotus Sutra says, “There is no safety in the threefold world; it is like a burning house, replete with a multitude of sufferings.”6
And volume twenty-two of the Nirvana Sutra states: “The bodhisattvas, mahāsattvas, observe living beings and see that, because of the causes and conditions created by color, scent, taste, and touch, they have been suffering constantly since numberless, uncountable kalpas ago. The bones one of these living beings leaves behind in a kalpa pile up as high as Mount Vipula near Rājagriha, and the milk he sucks is equal to the water of the four seas. The blood he sheds surpasses the quantity of water in the four seas, and so do the tears he sheds in grief over the death of parents, elder and younger brothers, wives, children, and relatives.
“And though he used all the plants and trees growing on the earth to make four-inch tallies to count them, he could not count all the parents he has had in the past existences of life. The sufferings he has undergone over countless kalpas down to the present as he was born into the realms of hell, of animals, or of hungry spirits, defy calculation. And the corpses of all living beings suffer this fate!”
And so in this manner the corpses of those who have cast away their lives to no good in the end pile up higher than Mount Vipula, and the tears shed in sorrow for loved ones are more plentiful than the waters of the four seas. But because not a single bone is dedicated to the service of the Buddhist teachings, and not a single tear is shed upon the hearing of even one phrase or verse of the sutras, these living beings can never escape from the cage and confinement of the threefold world, but keep on transmigrating through the region of its twenty-five realms.
How, then, are they to break free from the threefold world? They must wipe out ignorance through the power of the Buddhist teachings and their practices, and awaken to the enlightenment of the essential nature of phenomena, the true aspect of reality.
Well then, within these Buddhist teachings, what practice is to be carried out in order to free oneself from the sufferings of birth and death? Simply the practice of the wonderful Law of the single vehicle.
The Supervisor of Priests Eshin secluded himself in Kamo Shrine7 for a period of seven days, praying that he might be told what teaching would enable one to break free from the sufferings of birth and death. Thereupon he received a communication from the shrine’s deity that said: “Shakyamuni’s teachings are contained in the single vehicle. The path by which the p.308Buddhas attain the way resides in the wonderful Law. The six pāramitās of the bodhisattvas are found in the Lotus. It is this sutra that enables persons of the two vehicles to gain the way.”
The Universal Worthy Sutra states: “This great vehicle sutra is the treasure storehouse of the Buddhas, the eye of the Buddhas of the ten directions and the three existences, the seed from which spring the Thus Come Ones of the three existences.”
With the exception of this Lotus Sutra, the attainment of Buddhahood is not regarded as a possibility. Nowhere outside of this one sutra is there any indication that women can attain Buddhahood. In fact, in the sutras preached prior to the Lotus Sutra, women are looked on with great distaste.
Thus the Flower Garland Sutra states, “Women are messengers of hell who can destroy the seeds of Buddhahood. They may look like bodhisattvas, but at heart they are like yaksha demons.” And the Silver-Colored Woman Sutra says, “Even if the eyes of the Buddhas of the three existences were to fall to the ground, no woman in any of the realms of existence could ever attain Buddhahood.”
Moreover, women bear a heavy burden of guilt in the form of the five obstacles and three obediences. The five obstacles are explained in the works of the Buddhist canon, and the three obediences are outlined in the non-Buddhist writings.
The three obediences dictate that, when young, a woman must submit to her parents; when an adult, she must submit to her husband; and in old age she must submit to her son. Thus, at no time in her life is she free to do as she wishes. Therefore, when Jung Ch’i-ch’i wrote a song describing his “three joys” in life,8 he noted that one of his joys was the fact that he had not been born a woman.
The Great Teacher T’ien-t’ai states, “The other sutras predict Buddhahood only for bodhisattvas, but not for persons of the two vehicles. They predict it only for men, but not for women.”9 His commentary makes clear that none of the other sutras predict that a woman can attain Buddhahood.
Moreover, when the two Buddhas, Shakyamuni and Many Treasures, were seated side by side in the treasure tower, Manjushrī entered the ocean in order to propagate the wonderful Law, and then returned to the presence of the two Buddhas. At that time a bodhisattva named Wisdom Accumulated, a disciple of the Buddha Many Treasures of the World of Treasure Purity, objected to the assertion that the dragon king’s daughter could attain Buddhahood, saying, “When I observe Shakyamuni Thus Come One, I see that for immeasurable kalpas he carried out harsh and difficult practices, accumulating merit, piling up virtue, seeking the way of the bodhisattva without ever resting. I observe that throughout the major world system, there is not a single spot tiny as a mustard seed where this bodhisattva failed to sacrifice body and life for the sake of living beings.”10
While Wisdom Accumulated and Manjushrī were exchanging two or three questions and answers, the eighty thousand bodhisattvas and twelve thousand voice-hearers all bent their ears, listening intently to the discussion and not venturing to add a word of their own.
But Shāriputra, foremost in wisdom, without criticizing what Manjushrī had said directly, pointed out many reasons why it was difficult to believe that a dragon girl could attain Buddhahood. He observed that a woman’s body is soiled and defiled, not a vessel for the Law, as is made clear in the Hinayana and provisional teachings. But Manjushrī said that, to demonstrate whether or not she could attain Buddhahood, the dragon girl would now p.309appear in the presence of the Buddha.
True to these words, the eight-year-old daughter of the dragon king, without changing out of her dragon body, appeared in the presence of the Buddha and presented a wish-granting jewel said to be worth as much as the major world system to the Buddha. The Buddha, pleased, accepted the jewel.
At that time Bodhisattva Wisdom Accumulated and Shāriputra, their doubts resolved, came to realize that a woman can in fact attain Buddhahood. Hence this has come to be looked on as a model of how women can attain Buddhahood. If you wish to know more of the matter in detail, you may read of it in the fifth volume of the Lotus Sutra.11
In his Outstanding Principles of the Lotus Sutra, the Great Teacher Dengyō states: “The dragon king’s daughter, an instructor of others, did not need to undergo countless kalpas of austere practice, nor do living beings, who receive instruction, need to undergo such practice. Instructors and instructed alike need no such kalpas of practice. Through the power of the Lotus Sutra of the Wonderful Law they can attain Buddhahood in their present form.”
T’ien-t’ai’s commentary says: “Wisdom Accumulated, clinging to the specific teaching, doubted that such a thing was possible. But the dragon king’s daughter, illustrating the perfect teaching, dispelled all such doubts. Shāriputra, limited by the provisional doctrines of the Tripitaka teaching, voiced objections, but the dragon king’s daughter, relying on the teaching of the one true vehicle, banished all doubts.”12
The Dragon King of the Sea Sutra13 states: “The dragon king’s daughter attained Buddhahood, presiding over a land called Light Bright and bearing the name Spotless Understanding Thus Come One.”
If one goes by the sutras preached prior to the Lotus Sutra, one could not imagine it would be possible even for women of the human or heavenly realms to attain Buddhahood. And yet the dragon king’s daughter, a being of the realm of animals, without changing out of the form she had been born in as a result of lax observance of the precepts, attained Buddhahood in that very body. What a marvelous event!
With this as a beginning, thereafter Shakyamuni’s maternal aunt, the nun Mahāprajāpatī, and the nuns accompanying her, as is related in the “Encouraging Devotion” chapter, all received a prophecy that they would attain Buddhahood, Mahāprajāpatī to be named Gladly Seen by All Living Beings Thus Come One. Rāhula’s mother, Lady Yashodharā, along with the nuns attending her, was told that she would become a Buddha named Endowed with a Thousand Ten Thousand Glowing Marks Thus Come One. And the ten demon daughters, women of the realm of hungry spirits, were also able to attain Buddhahood.
This being the case, women in particular should make the Lotus Sutra the object of their faith and devotion.
Thus, reading one sentence or one phrase of this sutra, or writing out one character or one stroke of it, can become the cause that enables one to escape from the sufferings of birth and death and attain great enlightenment. So it was that a certain person, because he formed a relationship with the words of this sutra, was able to return to life from the hall of Yama, the judge of the dead.14 And because another person wrote out the sixty-four characters that make up the titles of the eight volumes of the Lotus Sutra,15 his deceased father was let to the realm of heaven.
For it is a fact that both the beings and the environment of the Avīchi hell exist within the life of the highest sage p.310[Buddha], and both hell and the palaces of heaven are all part of the makeup of the Thus Come One. The life and the environment of Vairochana Buddha never transcend the lives of ordinary mortals; his enlightened form never departs from the wanderings and delusions of ordinary beings.
The wonderful words of the Lotus Sutra increase the brilliance of the pure land of Eagle Peak; the sixty-nine thousand characters in which it is written add to the glitter of the purple-tinged purest gold.16
The departed one in particular, while alive, gave evidence of an extraordinary faith in the Lotus Sutra. And now, through the power of these lectures on the sutra, that person will be reborn in the presence of the Buddha and will gain wonderful causes leading to the attainment of the Buddha’s enlightenment. Nam-myoho-renge-kyo, Nam-myoho-renge-kyo.
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This letter is generally thought to have been written in 1265 while Nichiren Daishonin was residing in Kamakura. The recipient is unknown, but judging from the contents, is likely to have been a woman.
In this letter, the Daishonin first discusses the history of the “Devadatta” chapter of the Lotus Sutra in China, indicating that the chapter had at one time been omitted from Kumārajīva’s translation, and was discovered and reinserted at a later time. Quoting various sutras, he confirms that the way to free oneself from the sufferings of birth and death is found only in the practice of the wonderful Law of the single vehicle. “With the exception of this Lotus Sutra, the attainment of Buddhahood is not regarded as a possibility,” he writes. In particular, he points out that sutras other than the Lotus Sutra fail to recognize the possibility of attaining Buddhahood for women, saying, “In fact, in the sutras preached prior to the Lotus Sutra, women are looked on with great distaste.” To make his point, the Daishonin cites sutra passages that can only be regarded as demeaning toward women and as denying the possibility of their enlightenment.
He then introduces the example of the attainment of Buddhahood by the dragon king’s daughter from the “Devadatta” (12th) chapter of the Lotus Sutra, indicating that it signifies that all women have the potential to gain enlightenment. He also mentions that the “Encouraging Devotion” (13th) chapter, which follows the “Devadatta” chapter, predicts that Shakyamuni’s aunt and foster mother, the nun Mahāprajāpatī, and his wife before renouncing secular life, the nun Yashodharā, as well as the nuns accompanying them will become Buddhas. This further distinguishes the Lotus Sutra as confirming women’s potential for Buddhahood.
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1. Shakyamuni’s prophecy of enlightenment for Devadatta and the attainment of Buddhahood by the dragon king’s daughter. The former demonstrates that evil persons, represented by Devadatta, can become Buddhas, and the latter, that women can become Buddhas. The Daishonin refers to the enlightenment of Devadatta and that of the dragon king’s daughter as “admonitions” because the purpose of this chapter, which follows the three pronouncements in the “Treasure Tower” chapter, can be taken to mean that, by revealing the great power of the Lotus p.311Sutra in this way, Shakyamuni is admonishing the assembly to embrace and propagate it. “The three pronouncements” mentioned above refers to three exhortations by Shakyamuni Buddha who, desiring to perpetuate the Lotus Sutra after his death, urges the assembly (1) to preach it, (2) to guard and uphold, read and recite it, and (3) to make a great vow so that they can accomplish these difficult things. He further explains these tasks in terms of the “six difficult and nine easy acts” (see Glossary).
2. According to the “Devadatta” chapter, in a past existence Devadatta was a hermit named Asita and taught the Lotus Sutra to a certain king. The king was reborn as Shakyamuni and attained Buddhahood.
3. A priest who was active in China during the Liang dynasty (502–557). According to The Words and Phrases of the Lotus Sutra, in the early years of the Liang dynasty the Dharma Teacher Man preached the Lotus Sutra a hundred times and inserted the “Devadatta” chapter before the “Encouraging Devotion” chapter of the sutra, thereby restoring the Lotus Sutra to its original twenty-eight chapter form.
4. Source unknown, but a similar statement is found in The Collected Essays on the World of Peace and Delight.
5. The “twenty-five realms” refers to the subdivisions of the threefold world in which living beings repeat the cycle of birth and death. They consist of fourteen realms in the world of desire, seven in the world of form, and four in the world of formlessness.
6. Lotus Sutra, chap. 3.
7. Kamo Shrine refers to the two independent but closely related Shinto shrines in Kyoto, Kamigamo Shrine and Shimogamo Shrine.
8. Jung Ch’i-ch’i was a man of the Spring and Autumn period (770–403 b.c.e.) in China. According to Lieh Tzu, he told Confucius that he had obtained three pleasures in this world: the first was to have been born a human being, the second was to have been born a man, and the third was to be able to enjoy a long life.
9. Words and Phrases.
10. Lotus Sutra, chap. 12.
11. The fifth of the eight volumes of the Lotus Sutra, which contains four chapters—the “Devadatta” (12th) chapter through the “Emerging from the Earth” (15th) chapter. Specifically the Daishonin refers to the “Devadatta” chapter.
12. Words and Phrases.
13. A sutra translated into Chinese by Dharmaraksha, a monk from Dunhuang who went to China during the Western Chin dynasty (265–316).
14. This story is found in The Lotus Sutra and Its Traditions.
15. “Sixty-four” represents the total number of characters, eight for each title of the sutra’s eight volumes. “Myoho-renge-kyo” comprises five characters, and the volume number, three characters. This story is found in The Lotus Sutra and Its Traditions (see I, p. 515).
16. This gold is said to be supreme among all kinds of gold.
Glossary U
Udayana A king of Kaushāmbī in India. He converted to Buddhism at the urging of his wife and became a patron of the Buddha. When Shakyamuni ascended to the heaven of the thirty-three gods to preach the teaching to his mother, King Udayana lamented that he could no longer see the Buddha and fell ill. Thereupon he ordered his retainers to fashion an image of the Buddha, the first such image ever made.
udumbara (Skt) A mythical plant said to bloom only once every three thousand years to herald the advent of a gold-wheel-turning king or a Buddha. The udumbara is often referred to in the Buddhist scriptures to symbolize the rarity of encountering a Buddha.
Ulūka Also called Kanāda. The founder of the Vaisheshika school, one of the six major schools of Brahmanism in ancient India. Ulūka is also known as one of the three ascetics, together with Kapila and Rishabha.
unconditioned, the That which is not created, that is, the eternal, unchanging, and pure. “The unconditioned” refers to Buddhist truths and ideals such as nirvana and enlightenment. Its opposite is the conditioned, which refers to all phenomena that are produced through causation, that are changeable and impermanent.
unification of the three truths A principle expounded by T’ien-t’ai on the basis of the Lotus Sutra, explaining the three truths of non-substantiality, temporary existence, and the Middle Way as an integral whole, each of the three possessing all three within itself. It teaches that these three are inseparable phases of all phenomena.
Universal Brightness (1) (Skt Shrutasoma) The name of Shakyamuni in a past existence when he was a king engaged in the pāramitā of observing precepts. This king appears in the Sutra on the Wise and the Foolish, The Treatise on the Great Perfection of Wisdom, and elsewhere. The king Universal Brightness and 99 other kings (999 kings according to another source) had been captured by the king called Spotted Feet and were about to be beheaded. The king Universal Brightness asked Spotted Feet to let him first carry out a promise he had made to give offerings to a certain monk. Spotted Feet granted him seven days’ grace to fulfill his promise, and the king Universal Brightness returned to his country, where he gave the monk offerings and transferred the throne to his son. After proclaiming to his people that keeping one’s promise is the most important precept, he returned to the king Spotted Feet; the latter was so impressed by the king Universal Brightness’s integrity that he released him and the other kings and then converted to Buddhism. (2) The name that Kaundinya and other voice-hearer disciples will assume when they attain Buddhahood, according to the “Prophecy of Enlightenment for Five Hundred Disciples” chapter of the Lotus Sutra. In this chapter, Shakyamuni predicts that a group of five hundred arhats and another group of seven hundred will in the future all become Buddhas named Universal Brightness.
Universal Worthy One of the two bodhisattvas, with Manjushrī, who attend Shakyamuni Buddha and lead the other bodhisattvas. He represents the virtues of truth and practice. In the “Universal Worthy” chapter of the Lotus Sutra, he vows to protect the sutra and its votaries.
Universal Worthy Sutra A one-volume sutra that was preached three months before Shakyamuni’s passing. This sutra is regarded as a continuation of the last, “Universal Worthy,” chapter of the Lotus Sutra and as the epilogue to the Lotus Sutra. It describes how to meditate on Bodhisattva Universal Worthy and explains the benefit of this practice.
unseen crown of the head The top of a Buddha’s head, which no one can see. One of a Buddha’s eighty characteristics. This feature is generally identified as a protuberant knot of flesh—one of a Buddha’s thirty-two features—on the crown of a Buddha’s head.
Usa Shrine A shrine in Kyushu, a southern island of Japan, dedicated to Emperor Ōjin, Empress Jingū, and the goddess Himegami. It is also called Usa Hachiman Shrine.
Utpalavarnā A nun and follower of Shakyamuni Buddha. She is said to have attained the state of arhat under the guidance of Mahāprajāpatī. She was beaten to death by Devadatta when she reproached him for his evil acts.
The Life of Nichiren Daishonin

Nichiren Daishonin was born on the sixteenth day of the second month, 1222, in the village of Kominato on the eastern coast of Awa Province in present-day Chiba Prefecture. His father’s name was Mikuni no Taifu, and his mother’s name was Umegiku; they made their living by fishing. As Nichiren Daishonin said in Letter from Sado, he was “the son of a chandāla family.” The chandāla are the lowest group in the Indian class system, comprising such professions as fisherman, jailer, and butcher; Nichiren Daishonin is acknowledging that his origins were of the humblest kind. He was given the childhood name Zennichi-maro and lived in the fishing village until the age of twelve, when he left home to study at a nearby temple called Seichō-ji. In those days temples were the only place where common people could learn reading and writing.
Zennichi-maro became interested in and studied Buddhism at Seichō-ji, which belonged to the Tendai school. There he was placed under Dōzen-bō, a senior priest of Seichō-ji, and received instruction not only in Tendai doctrines but in True Word and Pure Land ones as well. He was particularly concerned about the bewildering multiplicity of Buddhist schools and the doctrinal contradictions within the Buddhist canon. He was convinced that one sutra among the many that existed must represent the ultimate truth. He began to wonder where he could find that truth. Another concern was the fundamental problem of life and death, which he had wished to solve since his early years. He came to realize that the answer could only be found in the Buddha’s enlightenment.
In the temple’s hall of worship, there was a statue of Bodhisattva Space Treasury. Zennichi-maro prayed before the statue to become the wisest man in Japan, and his prayer was answered when, as he wrote later, the “living” Bodhisattva Space Treasury bestowed on him “a great jewel” of wisdom. At that moment he awakened to the ultimate reality of life and the universe. But in order to reveal this enlightenment to the people of the Latter Day of the Law, he had to systematize his ideas in relation to the whole spectrum of the Buddha’s teachings.
At the age of sixteen, he resolved to be ordained and took the religious name Zeshō-bō Renchō. Some time later he took leave of his teacher Dōzen-bō and went to Kamakura to further his studies. There he delved into the teachings of the Pure Land and Zen schools. But Kamakura was still a new city with only a limited tradition in Buddhism. In 1242, after three years of study there, Renchō returned to Seichō-ji briefly, and left again the same year for western Japan. This time he went to Mount Hiei, the center of the Tendai school and of Buddhism in general, and later to Mount Kōya, the headquarters of the True Word school, and to other important temples in the Kyoto and Nara areas. After some ten years of study at Mount Hiei and elsewhere, he concluded that the true teachings of Buddhism are to be found in the Lotus Sutra. The Lotus represents the heart of Shakyamuni Buddha’s enlightenment; all other sutras are mere expedients leading up to the Lotus.
He returned to Seichō-ji in 1253. There, shortly afterward, very early on the morning of the twenty-eighth day of the fourth month, he chanted Nam-myoho-renge-kyo for the first time, thereby providing the key for all future generations to unlock the treasure of enlightenment hidden in their hearts. He also changed his name to Nichiren (Sun Lotus).
At noon on the same day, he propounded his doctrine at the temple in the presence of his teacher and other priests and villagers. Rubbing his prayer beads between his palms, he chanted Nam-myoho-renge-kyo three times. Then he declared that none of the pre-Lotus Sutra teachings reveals the Buddha’s enlightenment, and that all the schools based on those teachings are misguided. He stated that the Lotus Sutra is supreme, and that Nam-myoho-renge-kyo, the essence of the Lotus Sutra, is the only teaching that can lead the people of the Latter Day of the Law to enlightenment.
Few in the audience understood the meaning of Nichiren Daishonin’s first sermon, but people responded angrily, since it appeared to be an attack upon their own religious beliefs. The steward of the region, Tōjō Kagenobu, a devout follower of the Pure Land school, took steps to have the Daishonin arrested. Though the Daishonin managed to escape, he was determined to go to Kamakura to preach. Before departing, however, he visited his parents and converted them to the new faith.
In the eighth month of 1253, he settled in a small dwelling at a place called Matsubagayatsu in the southeast section of Kamakura. At his dwelling and at the homes of supporters, he began to tell people about the teachings of the Lotus Sutra. On occasion, he visited temples in the city to debate with their chief priests. He denounced the beliefs of the Pure Land school, which teaches that salvation can be gained merely by invoking the name of Amida Buddha, and also attacked Zen for its rejection of the sutras.
His attacks angered not only religious leaders, but government authorities as well, since the latter were in many cases ardent patrons of the Pure Land and Zen schools. Soon he was faced with fierce opposition, though he continued his efforts to win converts. It was in those early years of propagation that such major disciples as Shijō Kingo, Toki Jōnin, Kudō Yoshitaka, and Ikegami Munenaka were converted.
Beginning in 1256, Japan suffered a series of calamities. Storms, floods, droughts, earthquakes, and epidemics inflicted great hardship upon the nation. In 1257, a particularly severe earthquake destroyed many temples, government buildings, and homes in Kamakura, while in 1259 and 1260 severe famine and plague ravaged the populace.
Nichiren Daishonin believed that the time had come for him to explain the basic cause of these catastrophes. In 1258 he went to Jissō-ji, a temple in Iwamoto in present-day Shizuoka Prefecture, to consult its copies of the Buddhist canon, and to assemble incontrovertible proof of the real cause of the disasters. During his stay there, he met a thirteen-year-old acolyte, who was so impressed by the Daishonin that he became his disciple. At this time, the Daishonin gave the young man the name Hōki-bō. Later the Daishonin named him Nikkō and designated him as his legitimate successor.
The most powerful man in the country was Hōjō Tokiyori, a former regent of the Kamakura shogunate who had retired to Saimyō-ji, a Zen temple. On the sixteenth day of the seventh month, 1260, Nichiren Daishonin presented to Tokiyori a treatise entitled On Establishing the Correct Teaching for the Peace of the Land. In it, he attributes the cause of the recent calamities to the people’s slander of the correct teaching of Buddhism, and their reliance on false doctrines. The worship of Amida Buddha, he asserts, is the source of such slander. The nation will know no relief from suffering unless the people renounce their mistaken beliefs and accept the teachings of the Lotus Sutra. Quotes from the Golden Light, Medicine Master, Benevolent Kings, and Great Collection sutras are included to substantiate these assertions. These sutras mention various calamities that will befall any nation hostile to the correct teaching. Of the seven mentioned in the Medicine Master Sutra, five had already struck Japan. The Daishonin predicts that, if the authorities persist in turning their backs on the correct teaching, the two remaining calamities, foreign invasion and internal strife, will strike the nation as well.
Tokiyori and the government officials appear to have taken no notice of the treatise. However, when word of its contents reached the followers of the Pure Land school, they were incensed. A band of them swarmed down on the Daishonin’s dwelling at Matsubagayatsu intent on taking his life. The Daishonin narrowly escaped with a few disciples to Shimōsa Province, where he stayed for a time at the home of Toki Jōnin, his follower and an influential figure in the area. But his sense of mission would not allow him to remain there long. In less than a year he was back in Kamakura to resume his preaching.
The priests of the Pure Land school, alarmed at his success in attracting followers, contrived to have charges brought against him by the Kamakura government. The regent at the time was Hōjō Nagatoki, whose father was Shigetoki, a lay priest at Gokuraku-ji temple and a confirmed enemy of the Daishonin. Without investigation or trial, Nagatoki accepted the charges and on the twelfth day of the fifth month, 1261, ordered Nichiren Daishonin banished to the desolate coast along the Izu Peninsula. This was the first government persecution suffered by the Daishonin.
Izu was a stronghold of the Pure Land school, and exile there clearly placed the Daishonin in great personal danger. Fortunately, however, he was taken in by Funamori Yasaburō, a fisherman, and his wife, they treated him with great kindness. Later he won the favor of Ito Sukemitsu, the steward of the area, who became a believer in his teaching when he successfully prayed for the steward’s recovery from illness. In time the government, apparently at the instigation of the former regent, Hōjō Tokiyori, issued a pardon, and Nichiren Daishonin returned to Kamakura in the second month of 1263.
In the autumn of 1264, Nichiren Daishonin, concerned about his aged mother, returned to his home in Awa. He found his mother critically ill—his father had died earlier—but he prayed for her recovery and she was able to overcome her illness and live nearly four years longer. Unfortunately, word of his return reached the steward, Tōjō Kagenobu. When the Daishonin and a group of followers set out to visit Kudō Yoshitaka, a supporter in the area, they were attacked by Tōjō and his soldiers at a place called Komatsubara. Although the Daishonin escaped death, he received a sword wound on his forehead, and his left hand was broken.
In 1268, the foreign invasion that Nichiren Daishonin had predicted seemed about to materialize. That year, as mentioned earlier, a letter from the Mongols arrived in Kamakura demanding that Japan acknowledge fealty to Khubilai Khan. The Japanese leaders realized that the nation faced grave danger. Construction of defensive fortifications was immediately undertaken in Kyushu on the coasts facing Korea, and every temple and shrine in the country was ordered to offer prayers for the defeat of the enemy.
Nichiren Daishonin, who had returned to Kamakura, was convinced that it was time for him to act. He sent eleven letters of remonstration to top-ranking officials, including the regent, Hōjō Tokimune; the deputy chief of military and police affairs, Hei no Saemon; and the two most influential priests in Kamakura at the time, Dōryū of the Zen school and Ryōkan of the True Word Precepts school. These letters briefly restated the declaration made in On Establishing the Correct Teaching—that unless the government embraced the correct teaching, the country would suffer the final two disasters predicted in the sutras. All eleven men chose to ignore the warnings.
In 1271, the country was troubled by persistent drought. The government, fearful of famine, ordered Ryōkan, the well-known and respected chief priest of Gokuraku-ji temple, to pray for rain. When Nichiren Daishonin learned of this, he sent a written challenge to Ryōkan offering to become his disciple if the latter succeeded in bringing on rain. If he failed, however, Ryōkan was to become the Daishonin’s follower. Ryōkan accepted the challenge, but in spite of his prayers and those of hundreds of assistant priests, no rain fell. Instead, Kamakura was struck by fierce gales. Ryōkan not only did not become a disciple of the Daishonin, but actually began to plot against him in collusion with Hei no Saemon.
Ryōkan and the Zen priest Dōryū both headed temples that had been founded by high officials of the Hōjō family. Though the founders had died, their wives still exercised strong influence within the government. Ryōkan and Dōryū aroused the anger of these women by telling them that the Daishonin, in his letters of remonstrance, had spoken disrespectfully of their deceased husbands. Eventually, as a result of the machinations of the priests, a list of charges against the Daishonin was submitted to the government.
On the tenth day of the ninth month, 1271, Hei no Saemon ordered Nichiren Daishonin to appear in court to answer the charges. This marked the beginning of the second phase of official persecution. The Daishonin eloquently refuted the charges and repeated his predictions of foreign invasion and strife within the ruling clan. Two days after the investigation, Hei no Saemon and his soldiers burst into Nichiren Daishonin’s dwelling. Though innocent of all wrongdoing, the Daishonin was arrested and sentenced to banishment on the island of Sado.
However, Hei no Saemon was determined to have him beheaded at an execution ground in Tatsunokuchi on the outskirts of Kamakura. Nichiren Daishonin and his followers believed that his death was at hand, but at the last moment the sudden appearance of a luminous object in the sky so terrified the officials that they called off the execution. Thereafter the Daishonin declared himself to have been reborn to a new life as the Buddha of the Latter Day of the Law. A detailed description of these dramatic events in the Daishonin’s own words will be found in the letter entitled The Actions of the Votary of the Lotus Sutra.
In the tenth month of 1271, Nichiren Daishonin, accompanied by warrior escorts, sailed across the Sea of Japan to Sado, his place of exile. The only friendly person to go with him was his faithful follower Nikkō Shōnin. The two were quartered in a dilapidated hut in an area where corpses of paupers and criminals were abandoned. They were short of food and clothing, and had no fire to keep them warm. Huddling in skins and straw mantles, they somehow managed to survive the first winter.
In the first month of 1272, in response to a challenge from priests in the area, Nichiren Daishonin engaged in a religious debate with representatives of other Buddhist schools, who had gathered from around Sado and from as far away as the mainland. During what has become known as the Tsukahara Debate, he completely refuted their doctrines and demolished their positions.
The situation on Sado improved somewhat for the Daishonin as he began to receive offerings of food and clothing from local people who had converted to his teachings. However, he faced constant hostility from the priests and lay believers of other schools. His time was devoted mainly to preaching and writing. Many of his most important works, including The Object of Devotion for Observing the Mind and The Opening of the Eyes, date from this period.
On the eighteenth day of the second month, 1272, a ship reached Sado Island bringing news that fighting had broken out in Kamakura and Kyoto. It was a power struggle within the Hōjō family. The Daishonin’s prophecy of dissension within the ruling clan had come true. And before long, the second disaster he had prophesied, foreign invasion, became more likely as the Mongols repeatedly sent envoys demanding submission. In the second month of 1274, the regent, Hōjō Tokimune, who had never completely agreed with the severe treatment accorded to the Daishonin, revoked the edict of banishment. And on the twenty-sixth day of the third month, two years and five months after he was exiled, Nichiren Daishonin returned to Kamakura.
On the eighth day of the fourth month, Nichiren Daishonin was ordered to appear before the military tribunal. Hei no Saemon was the presiding official, as he had been three years earlier when charges were brought against the Daishonin. But this time he behaved with reserve and politeness. In reply to questioning concerning the possibility of a Mongol attack, the Daishonin stated that he feared an invasion within the year. He added that the government should not ask the True Word priests to pray for the destruction of the Mongols, since their prayers would only aggravate the situation.
An old Chinese text says that, if a sage warns his sovereign three times and still is not heeded, he should leave the country. Nichiren Daishonin had three times remonstrated with the rulers, predicting crises—once when he presented On Establishing the Correct Teaching, again at the time of his arrest and near execution at Tatsunokuchi, and once more on his return from Sado. Convinced that the government would never heed his warnings, he left Kamakura on the twelfth day of the fifth month, 1274. He settled in a small dwelling at the foot of Mount Minobu in the province of Kai (present-day Yamanashi Prefecture).
Because of the remoteness of the region, his life in Minobu was far from easy. His followers in Kamakura sent him money, food, and clothing, and occasionally went in groups to receive instruction from him. He devoted much of his time to writing, and nearly half of his extant works date from this period. He also spent much time lecturing and training his disciples. The lectures on the Lotus Sutra he delivered at this time were compiled by Nikkō Shōnin and are known as The Record of the Orally Transmitted Teachings.
In the tenth month of 1274, five months after Nichiren Daishonin moved to Minobu, the Mongols launched the attack described earlier. In a letter to one of his followers, the Daishonin expressed his bitter disappointment that his advice had been ignored, for he was convinced that, had it been heeded, the nation would have been spared much suffering.
During this period, Nikkō Shōnin was successful in making a number of converts among the priests and lay people of Atsuhara Village. The priests of a Tendai temple in the area, angered at his success, began harassing the converts. Eventually, they arranged for a band of warriors to attack a number of unarmed farmers of the convert group and arrest them on false of thievery. Twenty of the farmers were arrested and tortured, and three were eventually beheaded.
The incident, known as the Atsuhara Persecution, was significant because, whereas earlier persecutions had been aimed mainly at the Daishonin, this time it was his followers who were the victims. In spite of the threats of the authorities, however, the farmers persisted in their faith. Nichiren Daishonin was thus convinced that his disciples and lay followers were now strong enough in faith to risk their lives for the Mystic Law. This led him to inscribe the object of devotion for all humankind. The date was the twelfth day of the tenth month, 1279, nearly twenty-seven years after he had first chanted Nam-myoho-renge-kyo.
By his sixty-first year, the Daishonin was in failing health. Feeling that death was near, he designated Nikkō Shōnin as his legitimate successor. Disciples and followers urged him to visit a hot spring in Hitachi to improve his health. On the eighth day of the ninth month, 1282, he left Minobu for Hitachi. When he reached the residence of Ikegami Munenaka in what is today a part of the city of Tokyo, he found he was too ill to continue. Many of his followers, hearing of his arrival, gathered at Ikegami to see him. On the morning of the thirteenth day of the tenth month, 1282, surrounded by disciples and lay believers reverently chanting Nam-myoho-renge-kyo, he peacefully passed away.
21. The Origin of the Service for Deceased Ancestors: Shijō Kingo dono gosho (四条金吾殿御書), 1111.

YOU went to the trouble to send me by messenger a donation for the service for your deceased ancestors of one to of polished rice as white as snow, a bamboo container of oil like well-aged sake, and one thousand coins. In particular, I was very much moved by the contents of your letter.
The service for deceased ancestors has its origins in the events arising from the Venerable Maudgalyāyana’s attempts to save his mother, Shōdai-nyo, who, because of her karma of greed and stinginess, had fallen into the world of hungry spirits for a period of five hundred lifetimes. He failed, however, to make his mother a Buddha. The reason was that he himself was not yet a votary of the Lotus Sutra, and so he could not lead even his mother to Buddhahood. At the eight-year assembly on Eagle Peak, he embraced the Lotus Sutra and chanted Nam-myoho-renge-kyo, and became Tamalapattra Sandalwood Fragrance Buddha.1 At this time, his mother also became a Buddha.2
You also asked about offerings for the hungry spirits. The third volume of the Lotus Sutra says, “Suppose that someone coming from a land of famine should suddenly encounter a great king’s feast.”3 This passage is explaining that the four great voice-hearers,4 who were of intermediate capacity, had not yet even heard of the delicacy called ghee, but when this sutra was expounded, they savored its taste to their hearts’ content for the first time, thus bringing an end at once to the hunger that had long been in their hearts. Therefore, when you make offerings to the hungry spirits, you should recite that passage from the sutra and chant Nam-myoho-renge-kyo for their repose.
Generally speaking, hungry spirits are divided into thirty-six kinds. Among these, caldron-shaped hungry spirits are ones with no eyes or mouth. If you ask what sort of cause from the past exists for this, it is because, while they were in this world, they did such things as attacking people under cover of night or committing robberies. Vomit-eating hungry spirits feed on what people have vomited up. The cause of this is the same as that mentioned above. It is also because they robbed people of their food. Thirst-consumed hungry spirits are ones that drink things like the water that people offer out of filial piety to their deceased parents. Property-possessing hungry spirits5 are ones that drink the water from horses’ hooves. This is because, while alive, they begrudged their property and concealed their food. Property-less hungry spirits6 are ones who have not heard even the name of p.190food or drink since the time of their birth.
Law-devouring hungry spirits are people who renounce the world and spread Buddhism. They think that if they preach the Law people will respect them, and because of their ambition for fame and profit, they spend their entire present lifetime striving to be thought of as better than others. They neither help other human beings nor have a mind to save their parents. Such people are called Law-devouring hungry spirits, or hungry spirits who use the Buddhist teachings to satisfy their own desires.
When we observe the priests of our time, we find some who secretly accept offerings for themselves alone. In the Nirvana Sutra they are described as dog-like priests. In their next life they will become ox-headed demons.7 We also find persons who, though they receive offerings openly, being greedy, never share them with others. In their next existence they will be born as horse-headed demons.
Also, some lay believers fail to pray for the repose of their parents who, having fallen into hell or the realm of hungry spirits or of animals, are undergoing excruciating agonies. These believers are luxuriously clad and fed, have an abundance of cattle, horses, and retainers, and enjoy themselves as they please. How their parents must envy and resent them! Even among priests, those who pray for the repose of their parents and teachers on the anniversaries of their death are rare. Certainly the gods of the sun and moon in the heavens and the deities on earth must be angry and indignant with them, considering them to be unfilial. Though they possess a human form, they are like animals. They should also be called human-headed beasts.
When I think that I will surely eradicate these karmic impediments and in the future go to the pure land of Eagle Peak, though various grave persecutions fall on me like rain and boil up like clouds, since they are for the sake of the Lotus Sutra, even these sufferings do not seem like sufferings at all. Those who have become the disciples and lay supporters of such a Nichiren—especially your deceased mother, Myōhō, the anniversary of whose death falls on the twelfth day of this month—are votaries of the Lotus Sutra and my lay supporters. How could she possibly have fallen into the world of hungry spirits? No doubt she is now in the presence of Shakyamuni Buddha, Many Treasures Buddha, and the Buddhas of the ten directions. Perhaps they are saying, “So this is the mother of Shijō Kingo!” and, with one accord, patting her on the head and praising her joyfully. And she is probably saying to Shakyamuni Buddha, “What a splendid son I have.”
The Lotus Sutra says: “If there are good men or good women who, on hearing the ‘Devadatta’ chapter of the Lotus Sutra of the Wonderful Law, believe and revere it with pure hearts and harbor no doubts or perplexities, they will never fall into hell or the realm of hungry spirits or of beasts, but will be born in the presence of the Buddhas of the ten directions, and in the place where they are born they will constantly hear this sutra. If they are born among human or heavenly beings, they will enjoy exceedingly wonderful delights, and if they are born in the presence of a Buddha, they will be born by transformation8 from lotus flowers.”9 The phrase “good women” is found in this passage of the sutra. If it does not refer to the deceased, Myōhō, then to whom does it refer? The sutra also states, “This sutra is hard to uphold; if one can uphold it even for a short while I will surely rejoice and so will the other Buddhas. A person who can do this wins the admiration of the Buddhas.”10 My p.192praise of your mother counts for little, but the sutra says that she “wins the admiration of the Buddhas.” Thinking, “How encouraging, how encouraging!” you should apply yourself earnestly to faith. Nam-myoho-renge-kyo, Nam-myoho-renge-kyo.
With my deep respect,

The twelfth day of the seventh month
Reply to Shijō Kingo
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This letter was written to Shijō Kingo, a samurai and one of Nichiren Daishonin’s most loyal followers, in the seventh month of the eighth year of Bun’ei (1271). Shijō Kingo had sent various offerings to the Daishonin as a donation for a memorial service to be held for his mother, who had passed away some years before on the twelfth day of the seventh month. The Daishonin wrote Kingo this letter in reply, explaining that, in the profoundest sense, only the act of chanting Nam-myoho-renge-kyo benefits the deceased.
Traditionally held in Japan on the fifteenth day of the seventh month, the service for deceased ancestors is a Buddhist observance honoring the spirits of the ancestors. This tradition originated in China and is based on the story of Maudgalyāyana’s saving his deceased mother that is related in the Service for the Deceased Sutra. Records indicate that the service for deceased ancestors was first held in China in 538, and in Japan in 657. Recent scholarship has established that the Service for the Deceased Sutra has its origins not in India, but in China, where filial piety was highly valued.
According to popular belief in Kamakura-period Japan, those who were greedy or egotistic in life would inevitably suffer from hunger in death. In this letter, the Daishonin discusses the various kinds of hungry spirits mentioned in Buddhist texts and explains the causes, that is, the evil acts they committed in past existences, that led them to acquire these forms.
The Daishonin also exposes the true motives of many of the priests of his day, referring to them as “Law-devouring hungry spirits” who use the Buddhist teachings as a means to gain personal fame and profit. Though they pretend to have a sincere desire to preach the Buddhist teachings, in their hearts they are greedy. They conceal the offerings they receive from others, keeping them to themselves. The Daishonin also censures those Buddhists, whether of the priesthood or of the laity, who neglect to pray for the repose of their deceased parents or teachers.
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1. This name is found in chapter 6 of the Lotus Sutra. The eight-year assembly indicates the assembly at which the Lotus Sutra was expounded.
2. According to the Service for the Deceased Sutra, Mudgalyāyana tried unsuccessfully with his supernatural powers to save his deceased mother, Shōdai-nyo, who was suffering in the world of hungry spirits. He sought the advice of Shakyamuni, who urged him to offer one hundred kinds of food to the monks on the fifteenth day of the seventh month (the last day of the monks’ three-month retreat during the p.193rainy season). Maudgalyāyana did as the Buddha instructed, and his mother was relieved of her agony. Here the Daishonin interprets the story in the light of the Lotus Sutra and the daimoku of Nam-myoho-renge-kyo, that is, the sutra’s essence.
3. Lotus Sutra, chap. 6.
4. Maudgalyāyana, Mahākāshyapa, Kātyāyana, and Subhūti.
5. Hungry spirits who have property, but begrudge sharing it with others, and who have an insatiable desire for even more.
6. Hungry spirits who have no property.
7. Beings who, together with horse-headed demons, are said to act as jailors in the hell of crushing, the third of the eight hot hells. These two kinds of demons are depicted as having the bodies of human beings and the heads of oxen or horses.
8. “Born by transformation” refers to one of the four forms of birth. Due to their karma, beings so born are said, upon the end of their previous lifetime, to appear suddenly in this fashion without the help of parents or other intermediary agency. This passage may be interpreted to mean that one attains the state of Buddhahood by manifesting one’s inherent Buddha nature.
9. Lotus Sutra, chap. 12.
10. Ibid., chap. 11.

Morning, Noon, and Evening EsseneCommunions to Follow

Day Contemplative Force
Seek Peace With:
Friday =Angel of Air = Breath = Energies of Atmosphere


Friday = Body (Acting Body)


Friday =Heavenly Father =Cosmic Currents = Final Union with Cosmic Ocean

Original Hebrew and Aramaic Texts Translated and edited by Edmond Bordeaux Szekely
Banus The Essene
Josephus: What is the law of nature?
Banus: It is the constant and regular order of events, by which the Creator governs the universe; as an order which Their wisdom represents to the senses and reason of humans, as an equal and common rule for their actions, to guide them, without distinction of race or religion, towards perfection and happiness.
Josephus: Give a clear definition of the word law?
Banus: An order or prohibition to act, with the express clause of a penalty attached to the infraction, or of a recompense attached to the observance of that order.
Josephus: Does such order exist in nature?
Banus: Yes.
Josephus: What do the words nature and cosmos signify?
Banus: The word nature bears three different signification’s.
1.It signifies the universe, the cosmos, the material world: in this first sense we say the beauties of nature, the riches of nature, that is to say, the objects in the heavens and on the earth exposed to our site; 2.It signifies the power that animates, that moves the universe, considering it as a distinct being, such as the soul is to the body; in this second sense we say, “The intentions of nature, the secrets fo the universe.” 3. It signifies the partial operations of that power on each being, or on each category of beings; and in this third sense we say: “The nature of humanity is an enigma; every being acts according to its nature. Wherefore, as the actions of each being, or of each species of beings, are subject to constant and general rules, which cannot be infringed without interrupting and troubling the general or particular order, those rules of action and of motion are called natural laws or cosmic laws.
Josephus: Give me examples of those laws.
Banus: It is a law of nature that the sun illuminates successively the surface of the terrestrial globe; – that its presence causes both light and heat; – that heat acting upon water, produces vapors; – that those vapors rising in clouds into the regions of air, dissolve into rain or snow, and renew instantly the waters of fountains and rivers. It is a law of nature that water flows downwards; that it endeavors to find it’s level; that it is heavier than air; that all bodies tend toward the earth; that flame ascends towards the heavens; – that it disorganizes vegetables and animals; that air is essential to the life, etc. Wherefore, as all those and similar facts are immutable, constant and regular, so many real orders result from them for humanity to conform themselves to, with express clause of punishment attending the infraction of them, or for welfare attending their observance. So that if humanity pretends to see clearly in darkness, if one goes in contradiction to the course of seasons, or the action of the elements; if he pretends to remain underwater without being drowned, to touch fire without burning oneself, to deprive oneself of air without being suffocated, to swallow poison without destroying oneself, one receives from each of these fractions of the law a corporeal punishment proportional to ones fault; but if, on the contrary, one observes and practices each of those laws according to the regular and exact relations they have to one, one preserves ones existence and renders it as happy as it can be: and as the only and common end of all these laws, considered relatively to mankind, is to preserve, and render them happy, it has been agreed upon to reduce the idea to one simple expression, and to call them collectively the natural and cosmic laws.
Joseph: what are the essentials of the natural and cosmic laws?
Banus: There can be assigned ten principal ones.
Josephus: Which is the first?
Banus: To be inherent to the existence of things, and consequently, primitive and anterior to every other law: so that all those that humanity has received, are only limitations of it, and there perfection is ascertained by the resemblance they bear to this primordial model.
Josephus: Which is the second?
Banus: To be derived immediately from the Creator, and presented by Them to each one, where as all other laws are presented to us by humans, who may be either deceived or deceivers.
Josephus: Which is the third?
Banus: To be common to all times, and to all countries, that is to say, one and universal.
Josephus: Is no other law universal?
Banus: No: for no other is agreeable or acceptable to all the people of the earth; they are all local and accidental, originating from circumstances of places and of persons; so that if such a person had not existed, or such an event happened, such a law would never have been enacted.
Josephus: Which is the fourth essential?
Banus: To be uniform and invariable.
Josephus: Is no other law uniform and invariable?
Banus: No: for what is good and virtue according to one, is evil and vice according to another; and what one and the same law approves of at one time, it often condemns at another.
Josephus: Which is the fifth essential.
Banus: To be evident and palpable, because it consists entirely of facts incessantly present to the senses, and to demonstration.
Josephus: Are not other laws evident?
Banus: No: for they are founded on past and doubtful facts, on equivocal and suspicious testimonies, and on proofs inaccessible to the senses.
Josephus: Which is the sixth essential?
Banus: To be reasonable, because its precepts and entire doctrine are conformable to reason, and to the human understanding.
Josephus: Is no other law reasonable?
Banus: No: for all are in contradiction to reason and the understanding of humans, and tyrannically impose on one a blind and impracticable belief.
Josephus: Which is the seventh essential?
Banus: To be just, because in that law, the penalties are proportionate to the infractions.
Josephus: Are not other laws just?
Banus: No: for they often exceed bounds, either in rewarding deserts, or in punishing delinquencies, and consider as meritorious or criminal, null or indifferent actions.
Josephus: Which is the eighth essential?
Banus: To be pacific and tolerant, because in the law of nature, all humans being siblings and equal in rights, it recommends to them only peace and toleration, even for errors.
Josephus: Are not other laws pacific?
Banus: No: for all preach dissension, discord and war, and divide mankind by exclusive pretensions of truth and domination.
Josephus: Which is the ninth essential?
Banus: To be equally beneficent to all humans, in teaching them the true means of becoming better and happier.
Josephus: Are not other laws beneficent likewise?
Banus: No: for none of them teach the real means of attaining happiness; all are confined to pernicious or futile practices; and this is evident from facts, since after so many laws, so many religions, so many legislators and prophets, humans are still as unhappy and ignorant, as they were eight thousand years ago.
Josephus: Which is the tenth essential of the natural laws?
Banus: That it is alone sufficient to render people happier and better, because it comprises all that is good and useful in other laws, either civil or religious, that is to say, it constitutes essentially the moral part of them; so that if other laws were divested of it, they would be reduced to unreal and imaginary opinions devoid of any practical utility.
Josephus: Recapitulate all ten essentials.
Banus: We have said that the law of nature is:
3. Universal
4. Invariable
5. Evident
6. Reasonable
7. Just
8. Pacific
9. Beneficent
10. Alone Sufficient

And such is the power of all these attributes of perfection and truth, that when in their disputes the theologians can agree upon no article of belief, they recur to the natural and cosmic laws, the neglect of which, say they, forced God to send from time to time prophets to proclaim new laws; as if God enacted laws for particular circumstances, as men do; especially when the first subsists in such force, that we may assert it to have been at all times and in all countries the rule of conscience for every one of sense or understanding.
Josephus: If, as you say, it emanates immediately from the Creator, does it teach Their existence?
Banus: Yes, most positively: for, to any one whatever, who observes with reflection the astonishing spectacle of the universe, the more one meditates on the properties and attributes of each being, on the admirable order and harmony of their motions, the more it is demonstrated that there exists a supreme Intelligence, a universal and identic Mover, designated by the appellation of God; and so true it is that the natural and cosmic laws suffice to elevate one to the knowledge of the Creator, that all which humans have pretended to know by supernatural means, has constantly turned out ridiculous and absurd, and that they have ever been obliged to recur to the immutable conceptions of natural and cosmic reasons.
Josephus: Then it is not true that the followers of the natural and cosmic laws are atheists?
Banus: No: it is not true; on the contrary, they entertain stronger and nobler ideas of the Divinity than most other people; for they do not sully Them with the foul ingredients of all the weaknesses and passions entailed on chaotic humanity.
Josephus: What worship do they pay to Them?
Banus: A worship wholly of action; the practice and observance of all the rules which the supreme wisdom has imposed on the life of each being; eternal and unalterable rules, by which it maintains the order and harmony of the universe, and which, in their relations to man, constitute the natural and cosmic laws.
Josephus: Were the natural and cosmic laws known before this period?
Banus: It has been at all times spoken of; most legislators pretend to adopt it as the basis of their laws; but they only quote some of its precepts, and have only vague ideas of its totality.
Josephus: Why?
Banus: Because, though simple in its basis, it forms in its developments and consequences, a complicated whole which requires an extensive knowledge of facts, joined to all the sagacity of reasoning.
Josephus: Does not instinct alone teach the natural and cosmic laws?
Banus: No; for by instinct is meant nothing more than that blind sentiment by which we are actuated indiscriminately towards everything that flatters the senses.
Josephus: Why, then, is it said that the natural and cosmic laws are engraved in the hearts of all people?
Banus: It is said for two reasons: first, because it has been remarked, that there are acts and sentiments common to all people, and this proceeds from their common organization; secondly, because the first philosophers believed that people were born with ideas already formed, which is now demonstrated to be erroneous.
Josephus: Philosophers, then, are fallible?
Banus: Yes, sometimes.
Josephus: Why so?
Banus: First, because they are human; secondly, because the ignorant call all those who reason, right or wrong, philosophers; thirdly, because those who reason on many subjects, and who are the first to reason on them, are liable to be deceived.
Josephus: if the natural and cosmic laws be not written, must they not become arbitrary and ideal?
Banus: No: because they consist entirely in facts, the demonstration of which can be incessantly renewed to the senses, and constitutes a science as accurate and precise as geometry and mathematics; and it is because the natural and cosmic laws form an exact science, that humans, born ignorant and living inattentive and heedless, have had hitherto only a superficial knowledge of them.

Josephus: Explain the principles of the natural and cosmic laws with relation to humanity.
Banus: They are simple; all of them are comprised in one fundamental and single precept.
Josephus: What is that precept?
Banus: It is self-preservation.
Josephus: Is not happiness also a precept of the law of nature?
Banus: Yes: but as happiness is an accidental state, resulting only from the development of humanitie’s faculties and their social system, it is not the immediate and direct object of nature: it is in some measure, a superstructure annexed to the necessary and fundamental object of preservation.
Josephus: How does nature order humanity to preserve itself?
Banus: By two powerful and involuntary sensations, which it has attached, as two guides, two guardian angels to all their actions: one a sensation of pain, by which it admonishes him of, and deters them from everything that tends to destroy him; the other, a sensation of pleasure, by which it attracts and carries him towards everything that tends to their preservation and the development of their existence.
Josephus: Pleasure, then, is not an evil, a sin, as fanatics pretend?
Banus: No, only inasmuch as it tends to destroy life and health, which, by the avowal of those same fanatics, we derive from God Themselves.
Josephus: Is pleasure the principal object of our existence, as some philosophers have asserted?
Banus: No; not more than pain; pleasure is an incitement to live as pain is a repulsion from death.
Josephus: How do you prove this assertion?
Banus: By two palpable facts: one, that pleasure, when taken immoderately, leads to destruction; for instance, a person who abuses the pleasure of eating or drinking, attacks their health and injures their life. The other, that pain sometimes leads to self-preservation; for instance, a person who permits a mortified member to be cut off, suffers pain in order not to perish totally.
Josephus: But does not even this prove that our senses can deceive us respecting the end of our preservation?
Banus: Yes; they can momentarily.
Josephus: How do our sensations deceive us?
Banus: In two ways: by ignorance, and by passion.
Josephus: When do they deceive us by ignorance?
Banus: When we act without knowing the action and effect of objects on our senses: for example, when a person touches nettles without knowing their stinging quality, or when one swallows opium without knowing its soporiferous effects.
Josephus: When do they deceive us by passion?
Banus: When, conscious of the pernicious action of objects, we abandon ourselves, nevertheless, to the impetuosity of our desires and appetites: for example, when a person who knows that wine intoxicates, does nevertheless drink it to excess.
Josephus: What is the result?
Banus: That the ignorance in which we are born, and the unbridled appetites to which we abandon ourselves, are contrary to our preservation; that, therefore, the instruction of our minds and the moderation of our passions are two obligations, two laws, which spring directly from the first law of preservation.
Josephus: But being born ignorant, is not ignorance a natural law?
Banus: No more than to remain in the naked and feeble state of infancy. Far from being a natural law, ignorance is an obstacle to the practice of all its laws. It is the real primordial sin.
Josephus: Why, then, have there been thinkers who have looked upon it as a virtue and perfection?
Banus: Because, from a strange or perverted disposition, they confounded the abuse of knowledge with knowledge itself; as if, because people abuse the power of speech, their tongues should be cut out; as if perfection and virtue consisted in the nullity, and not in the proper development of our faculties.
Josephus: Instruction, then, is indispensable to humanity’s existence?
Banus: Yes, so indispensable, that without it one is every instant assailed and wounded by all that surrounds them; for if one does not know the effects of fire, one burns oneself; those of water one drowns oneself; those of poison, one poisons oneself; it in the savage state, one does not know the wiles of animals, and the art of seizing game, one perishes through hunger; if in the social state, one does not know the course of the seasons, one can neither cultivate the ground, nor procure nourishment; and so on, of all their actions, respecting all their wants.
Josephus: But can a person individually acquire this knowledge necessary to their existence, and to the development of ones faculties?
Banus: No; not without the assistance of their fellow humans and by living in society.
Josephus: But is not society to humanity a state against nature?
Banus: No: it is on the contrary a necessity, a law that nature imposed on them by the very act of their organization; for, first, nature has so constituted humanity, that they cannot see their species of another sex without feeling emotions and an attraction, which induce them to live in a family, which is already a state of society; secondly, by endowing them with sensibility, she organized one so that the sensations of others reflect within one, and excite reciprocal sentiments of pleasure and of grief, which are attractions, and indissoluble ties of society; thirdly, and finally, the state of society, founded on the wants of humanity, is only a further means of fulfilling the law of preservation; and to pretend that this state is out of nature, because it is more perfect is the same as to say, that a bitter and wild fruit of the forest, is no longer the production of nature, when rendered sweet and delicious by cultivation in our gardens.
Josephus: Why, then, have some philosophers called the savage state the state of perfection?
Banus: Because, as I have told you, the vulgar have often given the name of philosopher to whimsical geniuses, who, from moroseness, from wounded vanity, or from a disgust to the vices of society, have conceived unreal ideas of the savage state, in contradiction with their own system of a perfect humanity.
Josephus: What is the true meaning of the word philosopher?
Banus: The word philosopher signifies a lover of wisdom; and as wisdom consists in the practice of the natural and cosmic laws, the true philosopher is one who knows those laws, and conforms the whole tenor of their conduct to them.
Josephus: What is humanity in the savage state?
Banus: A brutal, ignorant animal, a wicked and ferocious beast.
Josephus: Is one happy in that state?
Banus: No; for one only feels momentary sensations, which are habitually of violent wants which one cannot satisfy, since one is ignorant by nature, and weak by being isolated from their race.
Josephus: Is such a one free?
Banus: No: such a one is the most abject slave that exists; for their life depends on everything that surrounds them: they are not free to eat when hungry, to rest when tired, to warm themselves when cold; they are every instant in danger of perishing; wherefore nature offers but fortuitous examples of such beings; and we see that all the efforts of the human species, since its origin, sorely tends to emerge from that violent state by the pressing necessity of self-preservation.
Josephus: But does not this necessity of preservation engender in individuals egotism, that is to say self love? And is not egotism contrary to the social state?
Banus: No; for if by egotism you mean a propensity to hurt our neighbor, it is no longer, self-love, but the hatred of others. Self love, taken in its true sense, not only is not contrary to society,
but is its firmest support, by the necessity we lie under of not injuring others, lest in return they should injure us. Thus humanities preservation, and the unfolding of their faculties, directed towards this end, teach the true natural law in the production of the human being; and it is from this essential principle that are derived, are referred, and in its scale are weighed, all ideas of good and evil, of vice and virtue, of just and unjust, of truth or error, of lawful or forbidden, on which is founded the morality of individual or of social humanity.

Josephus: What is good, according to the natural and cosmic laws?
Banus: It is everything that tends to preserve and perfect humanity.
Josephus: What is evil?
Banus: That which tends to humanity’s destruction or deterioration.
Josephus: What is meant by physical good and evil, and by moral good and evil?
Banus: By the word physical is understood, whatever acts immediately on the body. Health is a physical good; and sickness a physical evil. By moral, is meant what acts by consequences more or less remote. Slander is a moral evil; a fair reputation is a moral good because both one and the other occasion towards us, on the part of other people, dispositions and habitudes, which are useful or hurtful to our preservation, and which attack or favor our means of existence.
Josephus: Everything that tends to preserve, or to produce is therefore a good?
Banus: Yes; and it is for that reason that certain legislators have classed among the work agreeable to the divinity, the cultivation of a field, the fecundity of a woman and the wisdom of a teacher.
Josephus: Whatever tends to cause death is, therefore, an evil?
Banus: Yes: and it is for that reason some legislators have extended the idea of evil and of sin even to the killing of animals.
Josephus: The murdering of a person is, therefore, a crime according to the natural and cosmic laws?
Banus: Yes, and the greatest that can be committed; for every other evil can be repaired, but murder alone is irreparable.
Josephus: What is a sin according to the natural and cosmic laws?
Banus: Whatever tends to disturb the order established by nature for the preservation and perfection of humanity and of society.
Josephus: Can intention be a merit or a crime?
Banus: No, for it is only an idea void of reality; but it is a commencement of sin and evil, by the impulse it gives to action.
Josephus: What is virtue according to the natural and cosmic laws?
Banus: It is the practice of actions useful to the individual and to society.
Josephus: What is meant by the word individual?
Banus: It means a person considered separately from every other.
Josephus: What is vice according to the natural and cosmic laws?
Banus: It is the practice of actions prejudicial to the individual to society.
Josephus Have not virtue and vice an object purely spiritual and abstracted from the senses?
Banus: No; it is always to a physical end that they finally relate, and that end is always to destroy or preserve the body.
Josephus: Have vice and virtue degrees of strength and intensity?
Banus: Yes: according to the importance of the faculties, which they attack or which they favor, and according to the number of persons in whom those faculties are favored or injured.
Josephus: Give me some examples.
Banus: The action of saving a person’s life is more virtuous than the saving of their property; the action of saving the lives of ten people, than that of saving only the life of one, and an action useful to the whole human race is more virtuous than an action that is only useful to one single nation.
Josephus: How does the natural and cosmic law prescribe the practice of good and virtue, and forbid that of evil and vice.
Banus: By the advantages resulting from the practice of good and virtue for the preservation of our body, and by the losses which result to our existence from the practice of evil and vice.
Josephus: Its precepts are then in action?
Banus: Yes: they are action itself, considered in its present effect and in its future consequences.
Josephus: How do you divide the virtues?
Banus: We divide them in three classes, first, individual virtues, as relative to a person alone; secondly, domestic virtues, as relative to a family; thirdly, social virtues, as relative to society.
Josephus: Which are the individual virtues according to the natural and cosmic laws?
Banus: There are five principal ones, to wit: first, science, which comprises prudence and wisdom; secondly, temperance, comprising sobriety and moderation; thirdly, courage, or strength of body and mind; fourthly, activity, that is to say, love of labor and employment of time, fifthly, and finally, cleanliness, or purity of body, as well in dress as in habitation.
Josephus: How does the natural and cosmic law prescribe science?
Banus: Because the person acquainted with the causes and effects of things attends in a careful and sure manner to their preservation, and the development of their faculties. Science is to one the eye and the light, which enable them to discern clearly and accurately all the objects with which they are conversant, and hence by an enlightened person is meant a learned and well-informed person. With science and instruction a person never wants for resources and means of subsistence: upon this principle a philosopher, who had been shipwrecked, said to their companions, that were inconsolable for the loss of their wealth: “For my part, I carry all my wealth within me.”
Josephus: Which is the vice contrary to science?
Banus: It is ignorance.
Josephus: How does the natural and cosmic law forbid ignorance?
Banus: From the grievous detriments resulting from it to our existence; for the ignorant person who knows neither causes nor effects, omits every instant errors most pernicious to themself and to others; resembles a blind person groping their way at random, and who, at every step jostles or is jostled by every one they meet.
Josephus: What difference is there between an ignorant and a silly person?
Banus: The same difference as between one who frankly avows their blindness and the blind person who pretends to sight; silliness is the reality of ignorance, to which is superadded the vanity of knowledge.
Josephus: Are ignorance and silliness common?
Banus: Yes, very common; they are the usual and general distempers of humankind; more than thousands of years ago the wisest of humanity said: “The number of fools is infinite”; and the world has not changed.
Josephus: What is the reason of it?
Banus: Because much labor and time are necessary to acquire instruction, and because people, both ignorant and indolent, find it more convenient to remain blind, and pretend to see clear.
Josephus: What difference is there between a learned and a wise person?
Banus: The learned knows, and the wise person practices.
Josephus: What is prudence?
Banus: It is the anticipated perception, the foresight of the effects and consequences of every action; by means of which foresight, I mean avoids the dangers which threaten one, while one seizes on and creates opportunities favorable to one: one thereby provides for ones present and future safety in a certain and secure manner, whereas the imprudent person, who calculates neither their step nor their conduct, nor efforts, nor resistance, falls every instant into difficulties and dangers, which sooner or later impair their faculties and destroy their existence.

Josephus: What is temperance according to the natural and cosmic law?
Banus: It is a regular use of our faculties, which makes us never exceed in our sensations the end of nature to preserve us; it is the moderation of the passions.
Josephus: Which is the vice contrary to temperance?
Banus: The disorder of the passions, the avidity of all kinds of enjoyments, in a word, cupidity.
Joscphus: Which are the principal branches of temperance?
Rataus: Sobriety and continence.
Josephus: How does the law of nature prescribe sobriety?
Banus: By its powerful influence over our health. The sober person digests with comfort; they are not overpowered by the weight of ailments; their ideas are clear and easy; they fulfil all their functions, they conduct their business with intelligence; their old age is exempt from infirmity; they do not spend their money in remedies, and they enjoy, in mirth and gladness, the wealth which chance and their own prudence have procured them. Thus, from one virtue alone, generous nature derives innumerable recompenses.
Josephus: How does it prohibit gluttony?
Banus: By the numerous evils that are attached to it. The glutton, oppressed with aliments, digests with anxiety; their head, troubled by the fumes of indigestion, is incapable of conceiving clear and distinct ideas: They abandon themself with violence to the disorderly impulse of lust and anger, which impair their health; their body becomes bloated, heavy, and unfit for labor; they endure painful and expensive distempers, they seldom lives to be old; and his age is replete with infirmities and sorrows.
Josephus: Should abstinence and fasting be regarded as virtuous actions?
Banus: Yes, when one has eaten too much; for then fasting and abstinence are simple and efficacious remedies; but when the body is in want of aliment, to refuse it any, and let it suffer from hunger or thirst, is delirium and a real sin against the natural and cosmic law.
Josephus: How is drunkenness considered according to the natural and cosmic law?
Banus: As a most vile and pernicious vice. The drunkard, deprived of the sense and reason given us by the Creator, profanes the donations of the divinity: one debases oneself to the condition of brutes; unable even to guide ones steps, one staggers and falls as if one were epileptic; one hurts and even risks killing oneself; their debility in this state exposes them to the ridicule and contempt of every person that sees them; one makes in one’s drunkenness, prejudicial and ruinous bargains, and injures one’s fortune; one makes use of abusive language, which creates one’s enemies and repentance; one fills one’s house with trouble and sorrow, and ends by a premature death or by a miserable old age.
Josephus: Does the law of nature interdict absolutely the use of wine?
Banus: No; it only forbids the abuse; but as the transition from the use to the abuse is easy and prompt among the generality of people, perhaps the legislators, who have proscribed the use of wine, have rendered a service to humanity.
Josephus: Does the law of nature forbid the use of certain kinds of foods on particular days, during certain seasons?
Banus: No; it absolutely forbids only whatever is injurious to health; its precepts, in this respect, vary according to persons, and even constitute a very delicate and important science; for the quality, the quantity, and the combination of aliments have the greatest influence, not only over the momentary affections of the soul, but even over its habitual disposition. A person is not the same when fasting as after a meal, even if one were sober. A glass of spirituous liquor, or a drink of mead, gives degrees of vivacity, of mobility, of disposition to anger, sadness, or gaiety; such a meat, because it lies heavy on the stomach, engenders moroseness and melancholy; such a fruit because it facilitates digestion, creates sprightliness, and an inclination to oblige and to love.
The use of vegetables, because they are light foods, cleanse the body, and gives a disposition to repose, calmness and ease; the use of meat, because it is full of calories, and of spirituous liquors, because they stimulate the nerves, creates excitement, uneasiness and audacity.
Now from those habitudes of aliment result habits of constitution and of the organs, which form afterwards different kinds of temperaments, each of which is distinguished by a peculiar characteristic. And it is for this reason that, in hot countries especially, legislators have made laws respecting regimen of food. The ancients were taught by long experience that the dietetic science constituted a considerable part of morality; among the Egyptians, the ancient Persians, and even among the Greeks, at the Areopagus, important affairs were examined fasting; and it has been remarked that, among those people, where public affairs were discussed during the heat of meals, and the fumes of digestion, deliberations were hasty and violent, and the results of them frequently unreasonable, and productive of turbulence and confusion.
Josephus: Does the natural and cosmic law prescribe continence?
Banus: Yes; Because a moderate use of the most lively of pleasures is not only useful, but indispensable, to the support of strength and health; and because a simple calculation proves that, for some minutes of privation, you increase the number of your days, both in vigor of body and of mind.
Josephus: How does it forbid libertinism?
Banus: By the numerous evils which result from it to the physical and the moral existence.
He who carries it to an excess enervates and pines away; they can no longer attend to study or labor; they contracts idle and expensive habits, which destroy one’s means of existence, their public consideration, and their credit; their intrigues occasion continual embarrassment, cares, quarrels and lawsuits, without mentioning the grievous deep-rooted distempers, and the loss of their strength by an inward and slow poison; the stupid dullness of their mind, by the exhaustion of the nervous system; and, in fine, a premature and infirm old age.
Josephus: Does the law of nature look on that absolute chastity so recommended in religious institutions, as a virtue?
Banus: No: for that chastity is of no use either to the society that witnesses, or the individual who practises it; it is even prejudicial to both. First, it injures society by depriving it of population, which is one of its principal sources of wealth and power; and as bachelors confine all their views and affections to the term of their lives, they have in general an egotism unfavorable to the interests of society. In the second place, it injures the individuals who practice it, because it deprives them of a number of affections and relations which are the springs of most domestic and social virtues; and besides, it often happens, from circumstances of age, regimen, or temperament, that absolute continence injures the constitution and causes severe diseases, because it is contrary to the physical laws on which nature has founded the system of the reproduction of beings; and they who recommend so strongly chastity, even supposing them to be sincere, are in contradiction with their own doctrine, which consecrates the law of nature by the well known commandment: increase and multiply.
Josephus: Why according to the Mosaic Law is chastity considered a greater virtue in women than in men?
Banus: Because a want of chastity in women is attended with inconveniences much more serious and dangerous for them and for society; for, without taking into account the pains and diseases they have in common with men, they are further exposed to all the disadvantages and perils that precede, attend, and follow child-birth. When pregnant contrary to law, they become an object of public scandal and contempt, and spend the remainder of their lives in bitterness and misery.
Moreover, all the expense of maintaining and educating their fatherless children falls on them; which expense impoverishes them, and is in every way prejudicial to their physical and moral existence. In this situation, deprived of the freshness and health that constitute their charm, carrying with them an extraneous and expensive burden, they are less prized by men, they find no solid establishment, they fall into poverty, misery, and wretchedness, and thus drag on in sorrow their unhappy existence.
Josephus: Does the natural and cosmic law extend so far as the scruples of desires and thoughts?
Banus: Yes; because, in the physical laws of the human body, thoughts and desires inflame the senses, and soon provoke to action: now, by another law of nature in the organization of our body, those actions become mechanical wants which recur at certain periods of days or of weeks, so that, at such a time, the want is renewed of such an action and such a secretion; if this action and this secretion be injurious to health, the habitude of them becomes destructive of life itself. Thus thoughts and desires have a true and natural importance.
Josephus: Should modesty be considered as a natural virtue?
Banus: Yes, because modesty, inasmuch as it is a shame of certain actions, maintains the soul and body in all those habits useful to good order, and to self-preservation.

Josephus: Are courage and strength of body and mind virtues according to the natural and cosmic law?
Banus: Yes, and most important virtues; for they are efficacious – and indispensable means of attending to our preservation and welfare. The courageous and strong person repulses oppression, defends their life, their liberty, and their property; by their labor they procure themselves an abundant subsistence, which they enjoys in tranquillity and peace of mind. If one falls into misfortunes, from which one’s prudence could not protect one, one supports them with fortitude and resignation; and it is for this reason that the ancient moralists have reckoned strength and courage among the four principal virtues.
Josephus: Should weakness and cowardice be considered as vices according to the natural and cosmic law?
Banus: Yes, since it is certain that they produce innumerable calamities. The weak or cowardly person lives in perpetual cares and agonies; they undermine their health by the dread, oftentimes ill founded, of attacks and dangers: and this dread which is an evil, is not a remedy, it renders them, on the contrary, the slave of them who wishe to oppress them; and by the servitude and debasement of all their faculties, it degrades and diminishes their means of extistence, so far as the being of their life depends on the will and caprice of another person.
Josephus: But, after what vou have said on the influence of aliments, are not courage and force, as well as many other virtues, in greater measure the effect of our physical constitution and temperament.
Banus: Yes, it is true; and so far, that those qualities are transmitted by generation and blood, with the elements on which they depend: the most reiterated and constant facts prove that in the breed of animals of every kind, we see certain physical and moral qualities, attached to the individuals of those species, increase or decay according to the combinations and mixtures they make with other breeds.
Josephus: But, then, as our will is not sufficient to procure us those qualities, is it a crime to be destitute of them?
Banus: No, it is not a crime, but a misfortune; it is what the ancients call an unlucky fatality; but even then we have it yet in our power to acquire them; for, as soon as we know on what physical elements such or such a quality is founded, we can promote its growth, and hasten its developments, by a skillful management of those elements; and in this consists the science of education, which, according as it is directed, meliorates or degrades individuals, or the whole race, to such a pitch as totally to change their nature and inclinations; for which reason it is of the greatest importance to be acquainted with the natural and cosmic laws by which those operations and changes are certainly and necessarily effected.
Josephus: Why do you say that activity is a virtue according to the natural and cosmic law?
Banus: Because the person who works and employs their time usefully, derives from it a thousand precious advantages to their existence. If one is born poor, their labor furnishes them with subsistence; and still more so, if one is sober, continent, and prudent, for one soon acquires a competency, and enjoys the sweets of life; one’s very labor gives one virtues; for, while one occupies one’s body and mind, one is not affected with unruly desires, time does not lie heavy on one, one contracts mild habits, one augments one’s strength and health, and attains a peaceful and happy old age.
Josephus: Are idleness and sloth vices according to the natural and cosmic law?
Banus: Yes, and the most pernicious of all vices, for they lead to all the others.
By idleness and sloth humanity remains ignorant, they forget even the science they had acquired, and falls into all the misfortunes which accompany ignorance and folly; by idleness and sloth humans, devoured with disquietude, in order to dissipate it, abandon themselves to all the desires of their senses, which, becoming every day more inordinate, render them intemperate, gluttonous, lascivious, enervated, cowardly, vile, and contemptible. By the certain effect of all those vices, they ruin their fortune, consume their health, and terminates their life in all the agonies of sickness and of poverty.
Josephus: From what you say, one would think that poverty was a vice?
Banus: No, it is not a vice; but it is still less a virtue, for it is by far more ready to injure than to be useful; it is even commonly the result, or the beginning of vice, for the effect of all individual vices is to lead to indigence, and to the privation of the necessaries of life; and when a person is in want of necessaries, one is tempted to procure them by vicious means, that is to say, by means injurious to society. All the individual virtues tend, on the contrary, to procure to humanity an abundant subsistence: and when one has more than one can consume, it is much easier for one to give to others, and to practice the actions useful to society.
Josephus: Do you look upon opulence as a virtue?
Banus: No, but still less as a vice: it is the use alone of wealth that can be called virtuous or vicious, according as it is serviceable or prejudicial to humanity and to society. Wealth is an instrument, the use and employment alone of which determine its virtue or vice.
Josephus: Why is cleanliness included among the natural virtues?
Banus: Because it is, in reality, one of the most important among them, on account of its powerful influence over the health and preservation of the body. Cleanliness, as well in dress and residence, as in food, obviates the pernicious effects of the humidity, baneful odors, and contagious exhalations, proceeding from all things abandoned to putrefaction. Cleanliness maintains free transpiration; it renews the air, refreshes the blood, and disposes even the mind to cheerfulness. From this it appears that.persons attentive to the cleanliness of their bodies and habitations are, in general, more healthy, and less subject to disease, than those who live in filth and nastiness; and it is further remarked, that cleanliness carries with it, throughout all the branches of domestic administration, habits of order and arrangement, which are the chief means and first elements of happiness.
Josephus: Uncleanness or filthiness is, then, a real vice according to the natural and cosmic law?
Banus: Yes, as real a one as drunkenness, or as idleness, from which in a great measure it is derived. Uncleanness is the second and often the first, cause of many inconveniences, and even of grievous disorders; it is a fact in medicine, that it brings on the itch, the scurf, leprosy’s, as much as the use of tainted or sour elements; that it favors the contagious influence of the plague and malignant fevers, that it occasions rheumatism, by encrusting the skin with dirt, and thereby preventing transpiration; without reckoning the shameful inconvenience of being devoured by vermin-the foul appendage of misery and depravity.
Most ancient legislators, therefore, considered cleanliness, which they called purity, as one of the essential dogmas of their religions. It was for this reason that they expelled from society, and even punish corporeally those who were infected with distempers produced by uncleanness; that they instituted and consecrated ceremonies of ablutions, baptisms, and of purification’s, even by the aromatic fumes of incense, myrrh, etc., so that the entire system of all those rites clean and unclean things, degenerated since into abuses and prejudices, were only founded originally on the judicious observation, which wise and learned people had made, of the extreme influence that cleanliness in food, dress and abode exercises over the health of the body, and by an immediate consequence over that of the mind and moral faculties. Thus all the individual virtues have for their object, more or less direct, more or less near, the preservation of the person who practice them; and by the preservation of each person, they lend to that of families and society, which are composed of the united sum of individuals.

Josephus: What do you mean by domestic virtues?
Banus: I mean the practice of actions useful to a family, supposed to live in the same house.
Josephus: What are those virtues according to the natural and cosmic law?
Banus: They are economy, paternal love, filial love, conjugal love, fraternal love, and the accomplishment of the duties of master and servant.
Josephus: What is economy?
Banus: It is the proper administration of everything that concerns the existence of the family or house; and as subsistence holds the first rank, the word economy is confined to the best employment of values for the wants of life.
Josephus: Why is economy a virtue?
Banus: Because a person who makes no useless expenses acquires an abundance, which is true wealth, and by means of which one acquires for oneself and one’s family everything that is really convenient and useful; without mentioning one securing thereby resources against accidental and unforeseen losses, so that one and their family enjoy an agreeable and undisturbed competency, which is the basis of human felicity in society.
Josephus: Dissipation and prodigality, therefore, are vices?
Banus: Yes, for by them humanity, in the end, is deprived of the necessaries of life in society; one falls into poverty and wretchedness.
Josephus: What is paternal love?
Banus: It is the assiduous care taken by parents to make their children contract the habit of every action useful to themselves and to society.
Josephus: Why is paternal tenderness a virtue in parents?
Banus: Because parents, who rear their children in those habits, procure for themselves, during the course of their lives, enjoyments and helps that give a sensible satisfaction at every instant, and which assure to them, when advanced in years, supports and consolations against the wants and calamities of all kinds with which old age is beset.
Josephus: Is paternal love a common virtue?
Banus: No; notwithstanding the ostentation made of it by parents, it is a rare virtue. They do not love their children, they caress and spoil them. In them they love only the agents of their will, the instruments of their power, the trophies of their vanity, the pastime of their idleness. It is not so much the welfare of their children that they propose to themselves, as their submission and obedience; and if among children so many are seen ungrateful for benefits received, it is because there are among parents as many despotic and ignorant benefactors.
Josephus: Why do you say that conjugal love is a virtue?
Banus: Because the concord and union resulting from the love of the married, establish in the heart of the family a multitude of habits useful to its prosperity and preservation. The united pair are attached to, and seldom quit their home; they superintend each particular direction of it; they attend to the education of their children; they prevent all disorder and dissipation; and from the whole of their good conduct, they live in ease and consideration; while married persons who do not love one another, fill their house with quarrels and troubles; the married pair avoid each other, or contend in lawsuits; and the whole family falls into disorder, ruin, disgrace and want.
Josephus: Is adultery an offence according to the Mosaic Law?
Banus: Yes; for it is attended with a number of habits injurious to the married and to their families.
The wife or husband, whose affections are estranged, neglect their house, avoid it, and deprive it, as much as they can, of its revenues or income, to expend them with the object of their affections; hence arise quarrels, scandal, lawsuits, the neglect of their children and servants, and at last the plundering and ruin of the whole family.
Josephus: What is filial love?
Banus: It is, on the side of the children, the practice of those actions useful to themselves and to their parents.
Josephus: How does the natural and cosmic law prescribe filial love?
Banus: By three principal motives: 1.By sentiment; for the affectionate care of parents inspires from the most tender age, mild habits of attachment.
2.By justice; for children owe to their parents a return and indemnity for the cares, and even for the expenses, they have caused them.
3.By personal interest; for, if they use them ill, they give to their own children examples of revolt and ingratitude, which authorize them, at a future day, to behave to themselves in a similar manner.
Josephus: Are we to understand by filial love a passive and blind submission?
Banus: No; but a reasonable submission, founded on the knowledge of the mutual rights and duties of parents and children; rights – and duties, without the observance of which their mutual conduct is nothing but disorder.
Josephus: Why is fraternal love a virtue?
Banus: Because the concord and union, which result from the love of brothers, establish the strength, security, and conservation of the family: brothers united defend themselves against all oppression, they aid one another in their wants, they help one another in their misfortunes, and thus secure their common existence; while siblings disunited, abandoned each to their own personal strength, fall into all the inconveniences attendant on an isolated state and individual weak ness.
This is what a certain Scythian king ingeniously expressed when, on his death-bed, calling his children to him, he ordered them to break a bundle of arrows. The young, though strong, being unable to effect it, he took them in his turn, and untying them, broke each of the arrows separately with his fingers. “Behold,” said he, “the effects of union; united together, you will be invincible; taken separately, you will be broken like reeds.”
Josephus: What are the reciprocal duties of managers and of workers?
Banus: They consist in the practice of the actions which are respectively and justly useful to them; and here begin the relations of society; for the rule and measure of those respective actions is the equilibrium or equality between the service and the recompense, between what one returns and the other gives; which is the fundamental basis of all society. Thus all the domestic and individual virtues refer, more or less mediately, but always with certitude, to the physical object of the improvement and preservation of humanity, and are thereby precepts resulting from the fundamental law of nature in one’s formation.
Josephus: What is society?
Banus: It is every reunion of humans living together under the clauses of an expressed or tacit contract, which has for its end their common preservation.
Josephus: Are the social virtues numerous?
Banus: Yes; they are in as great number as the kinds of actions useful to society; but all may be reduced to one principle.
Josephus: What is that fundamental principle according to the natural and cosmic law?
Banus: It is justice, which alone comprises all the virtues of society.
Josephus: Why do you say that justice is the fundamental and almost only virtue of society?
Banus: Because it alone embraces the practice of all the actions useful to it; and because all the other virtues, under the denominations of charity, humanity, probity, love of one’s country, sincerity, generosity, simplicity of manners, and modesty, are only varied forms and diversified applications of the axiom, “Do not do to another what you do not wish to be done to yourself,” which is the definition of justice.
Josephus: How does the natural and cosmic law prescribe justice?
Banus: By three physical attributes, inherent in the organization of humanity.
Josephus: What are those attributes?
A Banus: They are equality, liberty, and property.
Josephus: How is equality a physical property of humanity?
Banus: Because all people, having equally eyes, hands, mouths, ears, and the necessity of making use of them, in order to live, have, by this reason alone, an equal right to life, and to the use of the aliments which maintain it; they are all equal before the Creator.
Josephus: Do you suppose that all people hear equally, see equally, feel equally, have equal wants, and equal passions?
Banus: No; for it is evident, and daily demonstrated, that one is short, and another long-sighted; that one eats much, another little; that one has mild, another violent passions; in a word, that one is weak in body and mind, while another is strong in both.
Josephus: They are, therefore, really unequal?
Banus: Yes, in the development of their means, but not in the nature and essence of those means.
They are made of the same stuff, but not in the same dimensions, nor are the weight and value equal. Our language possesses no one word capable of expressing the identity of nature, and the diversity of its form and employment. It is a proportional equality; and it is for this reason I have said, equal before the Creator, and in the order of nature. Consequently all people have equal right to all preconditions and possibilities of life and individual evolution.
Josephus: How is liberty a physical attribute of humanity?
Banus: Because all people having senses sufficient for their preservation – no one wanting the eye of another to see, their ear to hear, their mouth to eat, their feet to walk – they are all, by this very reason, constituted naturally independent and free; no person is necessarily subjected to another, nor has one a right to dominate over them.
Josephus: But if a person is born strong, has that one a natural right to master the weak person?
Banus: No; for it is neither a necessity for one, nor a convention between them; it is an abusive extension of one’s strength; and here an abuse is made of the word right, which in its true meaning implies justice or reciprocal faculty.
Josephus; How is property a physical attribute of humanity?
Banus: Inasmuch as all people being constituted equal or similar to one another, and consequently independent and free, each is the absolute master, the full proprietor of their body and of the produce of their labor.
Josephus: How is justice derived from these three attributes?
Banus: In this, that people being equal and free, owing nothing to each other, have no right to require anything from one another only inasmuch as the balance of what is given is in equilibrium with what is returned; and it is this equality, this equilibrium which is called justice, equity, that is to say that quality and justice are but one and the same word, the same natural and cosmic law, of which the social virtues are only applications and derivatives.

Josephus: Explain how the social virtues are derived from the natural and cosmic law. How is charity or the love of one’s neighbor a precept and application of it?
Banus: By reason of equality and reciprocity; for when we injure another, we give one a right to injure us in return; thus, by attacking the existence of our neighbor, we endanger our own, from the effect of reciprocity; on the other hand, by doing good to others, we have room and right to expect an equivalent exchange; and such is the character of all social virtues, that they are useful to the person who practices them, by the right of reciprocity which they give one over those who are benefited by them.
Josephus: Charity is then nothing but justice?
Banus: Yes, it is only justice; with this slight difference, that strict justice confines itself to saying, “Do not to another the harm you would not wish one should do to you;” and that charity, or the love of one’s neighbor, extends so far as to say, “Do to another the good which you would wish to receive from them.”
Josephus: Does it enjoin forgiveness of injuries?
Banus: Yes, when that forgiveness implies self-preservation.
Josephus: Does the law of nature prescribe to do good to others beyond the bounds of reason and measure?
Banus: No; for it is a sure way of leading them to ingratitude. Such is the force of sentiment and justice implanted in the heart of humanity, that one is not even grateful for benefits conferred without discretion. There is only one measure with them, and that is to be just
Josephus: Is alms-giving a virtuous action in society?
Banus: Yes, when it is practiced according to the rule first mentioned; without which it degenerates into imprudence and vice, inasmuch as it encourages laziness, which is hurtful to the beggar and to society; no one has a right to partake of the property and fruits of another’s labor, without rendering an equivalent of one’s own industry.
Josephus: Does the natural and cosmic law prescribe probity?
Banus: Yes, for probity is nothing more than respect for one’s own rights in those of another; a respect founded on a prudent and well-combined calculation of our interests compared to those of others.
Josephus: But does not this calculation, which embraces the complicated interests and rights of the social state, require an enlightened understanding and knowledge, which make it a difficult science? Banus: Yes, and a science so much the more delicate as the honest person pronounces in their own cause.
Josephus: Probity, then, shows an extension and justice in the mind?
Banus: Yes, for the honest person almost always neglects present interest, in order not to destroy a future one; whereas the knave does the contrary, and loses a great future interest for a present smaller one.
Josephus: Improbity, then, is a sign of false judgment and a narrow mind?
Banus: Yes, and rogues may be defined ignorant and silly calculators; for they do not understand their true interest, and they pretend to cunning: nevertheless, their cunning only ends in making known what they are – in losing all confidence and esteem, and the good services resulting from them for their physical and social existence. They neither live in peace with others, nor with themselves and incessantly menaced by their conscience and their enemies, they enjoy no other real happiness but that of not being punished.
Josephus: Does the natural and cosmic law forbid robbery.
Banus: Yes, for the person who robs another gives them a right to rob him; from that moment there is no security in their property, nor in their means of preservation: thus, in injuring others, they, by counterblow, injures themselves.
Josephus: Does it interdict even an inclination to rob?
Banus: Yes, for that inclination leads naturally to action, and it is for this reason that envy is considered a sin.
Josephus: How does it forbid murder?
Banus: By the most powerful motives of self-preservation; for, first, the person who attacks exposes themselves to the risk of being killed, by the fight of defense; secondly, if one kills, one gives to the relations and friends of the deceased, and to society at large, an equal fight of killing them; so that their life is no longer in safety.
Josephus: How can we, by the natural and cosmic law, repair the evil we have done?
Banus: By rendering a proportionate good to those whom we have injured.
Josephus: Does it allow us to repair it by prayers, vows, offerings to God, fasting and mortifications?
Banus: No: for all those things are foreign to the action we wish to repair: they neither restore the ox to one from whom it has been stolen, honor to one we have deprived of it, nor life to one from whom it has been taken away; consequently they miss the end of justice; they are only perverse contracts by which a person sells to another goods which do not belong to one; they are a real deprivation of morality, inasmuch as they embolden to commit crimes through the hope of expiating them; wherefore, they have been the real cause of all the evils by which the people among whom those expiatory practices were used, have been continually tormented.
Josephus: Does the natural and cosmic law order sincerity?
Banus: Yes; for lying, perfidy, and perjury create distrust, quarrels, hatred, revenge and a crowd of evils among people, which tend to their common destruction; while sincerity and fidelity establish confidence, concord, and peace, besides the infinite good resulting from such a state of things to society.
Josephus: Does it prescribe mildness and modesty?
Banus: Yes; for harshness and obduracy, by alienating from us the hearts of other people, give them an inclination to hurt us; ostentation and vanity, by wounding their self-love and jealousy, occasion us to miss the end of a real utility.
Josephus: Does it prescribe humility as a virtue?
Banus: No; for it is a propensity in the human heart to despise secretly everything that presents to it the idea of weakness; and self- debasement encourages pride and oppression in others; the balance must be kept in equipoise.
Josephus: You have reckoned simplicity of manners among the social virtues; what do you understand by that word?
Banus: I mean the restricting of our wants and desires to what is truly useful to the existence of the individual and their family; that is to say, the person of simple manners has but few wants, and lives content with a little.
Josephus: How is this virtue prescribed to us?
Banus: By the numerous advantages which the practice of it procures to the individual and to society; for the person whose wants are few, is free at once from a crowd of cares, perplexities and labors; one avoids many quarrels and contests arising from avidity and a desire of gain; one spares oneself the anxiety of ambition, the inquietudes of possession, and the uneasiness of losses; finding superfluity everywhere, one is the real rich person; always content with what one has, one is happy at little expense; and other people, not fearing any competition from them, leave that one in quiet, and are disposed to render that one the services that one should stand in need of. And if this virtue of simplicity extends to a whole people, they insure to themselves abundance; rich in everything they do not consume, they acquire immense means of exchange and commerce; they work, fabricate, and sell at a lower price than others, and attain to all kinds of prosperity, both at home and abroad.
Josephus: What is the vice contrary to this virtue?
Banus: It is cupidity and luxury.
Josephus: Is luxury a vice in the individual and in society?
Banus: Yes, and to that degree, that it may be said to include all the others; for the person who stands in need of many things, imposes thereby on themselves all the anxiety, and submits to all the means just or unjust of acquiring them. Does one possess an enjoyment, one covets another; and in the bosom of superfluity, one is never rich; a commodious dwelling is not sufficient for one, one must have a beautiful palace; not content with a plenteous table, one must have rare costly viands: he must have splendid furniture, expensive clothes, a train of attendants, horses, carriages, women, theatrical representations and games. Now, to supply so many expenses, much money must be had: and one looks on every method of procuring it as good and even necessary; at first one borrows, afterwards one steals, robs, plunders, is at war with every one, ruins and is ruined. Should a nation be involved in luxury, it occasions on a larger scale the same devastation’s; by reason that it consumes its entire produce, it finds itself poor even with abundance; it has nothing to sell to foreigners; its manufactures are carried on at a great expense and are sold too dear; it becomes tributary for everything it imports; it attacks externally its consideration, power, strength, and means of defense and preservation, while internally it undermines and falls into the dissolution of its members. All its citizens being covetous of enjoinments, are engaged in a perpetual struggle to obtain them; all injure or are near injuring themselves; and hence arise those habits and actions of usurpation, which constitute what is denominated moral corruption, internal war between citizen and citizen. From luxury arises avidity, from avidity, invasion by violence and perfidy; from luxury arises the iniquity of the judge, the venality of the witness, the improbity of the husband, the prostitution of the wife, the obduracy of parents, the ingratitude of children, the avarice of the master, the dishonesty of the servant, the dilapidation of the administrator, the perversity of the legislator, lying, perfidy, perjury assassination, and all the disorders of the social state; so that it was with a profound sense of truth, that ancient legislators and philosophers have laid the basis of the social virtues on simplicity of manners, restriction of wants, and a contentment with a little; and a sure way of knowing the extent of a humanity’s virtues and vices is, to find out if one’s expenses are proportionate to one’s fortune, and calculate, from one’s want of money, one’s probity, one’s integrity in fulfilling one’s engagements, one’s devotion to the public weal, and one’s sincere or pretended love of one’s country and of humanity.
Josephus: What do you mean by the word country?
Banus: I mean the community of citizens who, united by fraternal sentiments, and reciprocal wants, make of their respective strength one common force, the reaction of which on each of them assumes the noble and beneficent character of paternity. In society, citizens form a unity of interest; in our country we form a family of endearing attachments; it is charity, the love of one’s neighbor extended to a whole nation. Now as charity cannot be separated from justice, no member of the family can pretend to the enjoyment of its advantages, except in proportion to one’s labor; if one consumes more than one produces, one necessarily encroaches on one’s fellow-citizens; and it is only by consuming less than what one produces or possesses, that one can acquire the means of making sacrifices and being generous.
Josephus: What do you conclude from all this?
Banus: I conclude from it that all the social virtues are only the habitude of actions useful to society and to the individual who practices them. That they refer to the physical object of humanities preservation; That nature having implanted in us the want of that preservation, has made a law to us of all its consequences, and a crime of everything that deviates from it; That we carry in us the seed of every virtue, and of every perfection; That it only requires to be developed; That we are only happy inasmuch as we observe the rules established by nature for the end of our preservation; And that all wisdom, all perfection, all law, all virtue, all philosophy, consist in the practice of the axioms founded on the natural and cosmic law.
Josephus: What are these axioms?
Banus: Your Father is the Cosmos. Your Mother is Nature. Your siblings are your fellow humans.
Live in harmony with the laws and forces of the Universe, Nature and of your own being. Preserve thyself. Learn the natural and cosmic laws. Live in peace with yourself, with humanity, with Nature and the Universe. Live in creative love with and for your fellow humans that they may live for thee. Peace Be With You.
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41 And he was withdrawn from them about a stone’s cast, and kneeled down, and prayed,

42 Saying, Father, if thou be willing, remove this cup from me: nevertheless not my will, but thine, be done.

43 And there appeared an angel unto him from heaven, strengthening him.

44 And being in an agony he prayed more earnestly: and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground.

45 And when he rose up from prayer, and was come to his disciples, he found them sleeping for sorrow,

46 And said unto them, Why sleep ye? rise and pray, lest ye enter into temptation.

Covenants 82:10

10 I, the Lord, am bound when ye do what I say; but when ye do not what I say, ye have no promise.

D & C 93:28

28 He that keepeth his commandments receiveth truth and light, until he is glorified in truth and knoweth all things.

Matthew 25:1-13

1 Then shall the kingdom of heaven be likened unto ten virgins, which took their lamps, and went forth to meet the bridegroom.

2 And five of them were wise, and five were foolish.

3 They that were foolish took their lamps, and took no oil with them:

4 But the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps.

5 While the bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept.

6 And at midnight there was a cry made, Behold, the bridegroom cometh; go ye out to meet him.

7 Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps.

8 And the foolish said unto the wise, Give us of your oil; for our lamps are gone out.

9 But the wise answered, saying, Not so; lest there be not enough for us and you: but go ye rather to them that sell, and buy for yourselves.

10 And while they went to buy, the bridegroom came; and they that were ready went in with him to the marriage: and the door was shut.

11 Afterward came also the other virgins, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us.

12 But he answered and said, Verily I say unto you, I know you not.

13 Watch therefore, for ye know neither the day nor the hour wherein the Son of man cometh.

D & C 1:38
What I the Lord have spoken, I have spoken, and I excuse not myself; and though the heavens and the earth pass away, my word shall not pass away, but shall all be fulfilled, whether by mine own voice or by the voice of my servants, it is the same.

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